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达赖喇嘛 西藏暴乱 爱国主义教育

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Political Pressure On Tibetans Rises
中国在藏区加大爱国主义教育力度

China's government appears to be stepping up a political-education campaign directed at Tibetans, a policy that may have sparked a new outburst of violence in the already tense situation in western China.

中国政府似乎将对藏族人加强思想教育工作,而在中国西部局势业已紧张的情况下,此举可能成了一起新发暴力冲突的导火索。

China's ruling Communist Party has issued a circular in recent days to party members and government officials in Tibetan areas instructing them 'to play an active role in maintaining social stability with more loyalty,' the official Xinhua news agency reported on Friday. On Saturday, authorities vowed through state media outlets to step up such efforts.

中国官方媒体新华社上周五报导,近日中国共产党中央组织部下发了通知,要求西藏及其他藏区认真开展党员干部主题教育活动,切实加强基层党组织建设,进一步发挥基层党组织和党员在反对分裂、维护稳定和促进发展中的战斗堡垒作用和先锋模范作用。周六相关政府机构通过官方媒体对这一号召作出了响应。

Overseas Tibetan groups said the campaign also involved requiring Buddhist monks to renounce their spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, and relinquish photos of him that many of them possess -- a push that may have sparked a new clash with authorities last week. The violence, which occurred Thursday in the southwestern province of Sichuan, was one of the biggest and most violent since the Lhasa riots began March 14 -- although the government and Tibetan groups offer differing accounts on what happened.

海外藏人组织表示,这项活动还包括要求藏传佛教徒与他们的精神领袖达赖喇嘛断绝关系,并放弃他的照片,这一要求可能对上周四在四川省爆发的一起暴力冲突起到了推波助澜作用,后者是自3月14日拉萨骚乱以来规模最大、也是最为严重的暴力冲突。不过中国政府和藏人组织对所发生的事件有不同的解释。

In their account of last Thursday's clash, overseas Tibetan and human-rights groups said as many as eight ethnic Tibetans, including one monk, were shot and killed near the Tongkhor monastery in Sichuan province's Ganzi county, following protests at authorities' efforts to step up 'patriotic education' that required monks to denounce the Dalai Lama. News of a riot in Ganzi -- but not those deaths -- was reported by Xinhua, which said the police fired warning shots and that a government official was among those injured.

据海外藏人及人权组织表示,上周四在四川省甘孜县东谷寺(Tongkhor Monastery)附近有包括一名喇嘛在内的八名藏人因枪击身亡,此前他们正在抗议当局进行的爱国主义教育,教育的一项内容就是要求僧侣们抨击他们的精神领袖达赖喇嘛。中国新华社报导了甘孜的骚乱事件,但没有提到有人员死亡,只是说警方鸣枪示警,有人受伤,其中一人为政府官员。

Neither account could be independently verified as telephones in the area, known as Garze in Tibetan, were either cut off or went unanswered.

这两方的表述都没有得到独立消息来源的证实,因为打往该地区的电话不是不通就是无人接听。

China's political-education campaigns tend to emphasize the supremacy of Communist Party doctrine over religious beliefs like the tenets of Tibetan Buddhism. For many Tibetan Buddhists, the government's emphasis on political thought above religious and philosophical beliefs, and its forced denunciations of the Dalai Lama, are the core reason they distrust Beijing's overall intentions, and why they play down the value of such factors as increased central-government investment in Tibet.

广告中国的政治思想教育总是倾向于强调,共产党的学说应凌驾于包括藏传佛教在内各类宗教的信仰之上。对许多藏传佛教信徒来说,中国政府将政治思想置于宗教及哲学信仰之上、并强制他们谴责达赖喇嘛,这是导致他们对政府缺乏信任的主要原因,也正因为此他们对政府加大在西藏的投资等收揽民心之举并不买帐。

Now, as it often does in the wake of challenges to its authority, Beijing appears to be reinvigorating its political-education efforts in Tibet and surrounding areas. In recent years, economic incentives have generally been the government's key tool for building Chinese national loyalty throughout Tibetan areas.

如今,北京方面所做的反应似乎和以往它的权威受到挑战时如出一辙──政府将在西藏和其他藏族聚居区重新加大思想政治教育的力度。近年来,经济刺激基本上成了政府维系藏族人爱国感情的主要手段。

In a written statement Sunday, the Dalai Lama reiterated his appeal to Tibetans to avoid violence and said they shouldn't disrupt the coming Olympic Games.

达赖喇嘛周日在一份书面声明中再次呼吁藏族人避免使用暴力,并表示他们不应该破坏即将到来的北京奥运会。

The Dalai Lama also noted how Tibetans are often Communist Party members by referring to 'Tibetan government employees and Communist Party cadres who have, without losing their Tibetan identity, shown grit and sense of what is right during the present crisis.' He requested that in the future they report 'the real sentiments of the Tibetan people to their superiors in the Party.'

达赖喇嘛还表示,在西藏的政府职员以及中共党员并没有忘记他们的藏族身份,在当前的危机中表现出了勇气和明辨是非的能力。他要求这些党员日后能向他们的党内领导汇报藏族人的真实情感。达赖喇嘛此言暗示出有许多藏族人都是中共党员。

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