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IBM  invented a computer language back in the 1970s designed specifically for database queries called SEQUEL;those letters stand for Structured English Query Language.Over time,the language has been added to so that it is not just a language for queries,but can also build databases and manage the database engine’s security.IBM released SEQUEL into the public domain,where it became known as SQL.Because of this heritage you can pronounce it“sequel”or spell it out“S-Q-L.”There are various versions of SQL used in today’s database engines.Microsoft SQL Server uses a version called Transact-SQL,or T-SQL,which stands for Transaction SQL.
IBM在20世纪70年代,设计了一种专门处理数据库查询的计算机语言SEQUEL,这几个字母是结构化英语查询语言的缩写。随着时间的推移,它增加了许多功能,就不仅是一个查询语言了,还可以创建数据库,管理数据库引擎的安全。IBM把它公开发行,于是就变成了现在为大家所知的SQL。由于历史的原因SQL可以读成sequel,也可以逐字段拼成S-Q-L。在现在的数据库引擎里,已经有了好多种SQL版本。微软SQL server使用的是T-SQL,它代表的是事务SQL。

1.What Is SQL Server? 什么是SQL Server?
SQL Server is a client/server relational database management system(RDBMS)that uses Transact-SQL to send requests between a client and SQL Server.
SQL Server是一个客户机/服务器关系型数据库管理系统(RDBMS),它使用事务SQL在客户机和SQL服务器间传送请求。
2.Client/Server Architecture 客户机一服务器体系结构
The terms client,server,and client / server can be used to refer to very general concepts or to specific items of hardware or software.At the most general level,a client is any component of a system that requests services or resources from other components of a system.A server is any component of a system that provides services or resources to other components of a system. For example,when you print a document from your workstation on a network,the workstation is the client and the machine that does the print spooling is the server.

Any client/server data-based system consists of the following components:
•  The server--A collection of data items and supporting objects organized and presented to facilitate services,such as searching,sorting,recombining,retrieving,updating,and analyzing data.The database consists of the physical storage of data and the database services.All data access occurs through the server;the physical data is never accessed directly by the client.

•  The client--A software program that might be used interactively by a person or that could be an automated process.This includes all software that interacts with the server,either requesting data from or sending data to the database.Examples are management utilities(those that are part of the SQL Server product as well as those bought separately),ad hoc query and reporting software,custom applications,off-the-shelf applications,and Web server-based applications.

•  The communication between the client and the server--The communication between the client and the server depends largely on how the client and server are implemented.Both physical and logical layers of communication can be identified.

When you communicate with someone using the telephone,the telephone system is the physical layer and a spoken natural language is the logical layer of communication.For a data-based system,the physical layer can be a network if the server and the client are on different computers.It can be interprocess communication if the server and the client are on the same computer.The logical communication structure of the physical layer may be low-level operating system calls,a proprietary data access language,or the open structured query language(SQL).

3.SQL Server Platforms SQL Server平台
SQL Server runs on the operating systems shown in Fig. 7-4.The SQL Server version 7 server software runs only on the Windows 32-bit API-based operating systems,but you can use all of the operating system platforms to create and execute client applications.
SQL服务器运行在如图7- 4所示的操作系统上。SQL Server第7版服务器软件只运行在32位的基于API的Windows操作系统上,但可以使用所有的操作系统平台去创建和执行客户应用程序。下表给出了操作系统及它们如何支持或不支持SQL Server 7的更多细节。

[1]spooling是simultaneous peripheral operations online的缩略语,称为假脱机。是在外围设备和处理器之间传送数据时,为了减少处理的延时,把辅助存储器作为缓冲存储器来使用的一种方法。


Multiple choices.
(1)Services provided by the server in client / server architecture include______.
a.searching data        b.sorting data
c.analyzing data   d.recombining data
(2)SEQUEL is ______ .
a.a query language  b.a tool to build databases
c.a T-SQL         d.invented by Microsoft
(3)A client can______other components of a system.
a.provide services to    b.provide resources to
c.require services from  d.require resources from
(4)Platforms running SQL Server are______.
a.Windows NT          b.Windows 3.x
c.Windows 98          d.Windows 2000
(5)The client can ______.
a.be a collection of data items        b.be a software program
c.be used interactively by a person  d.be an automated process
(6)Communication between the client and the server______.
a.has the same physical and logical layers
b.has the different physical and logical layers
c.depends on how the client and server are implemented
d.can be interprocess communication
(7)Client applications worked with the SQL Server version 7 include______ .
a.Windows 3. x   b.Windows NT
c.Windows 98   d.Third party
(8)The logical communication structure of the physical layer may be______.
a.a spoken natural language
b.the open SQL
c.low-level operating system calls
d.a proprietary data access language
(9)SQL Server______.
a.is a client / server RDBMS
b.consists of the physical storage of data
c.consists of the SQL Server’ s services
d.is a file server
(10)The client software includes ______ .
a.query and reporting software   b.custom applications
c.off-the-shelf applications   d.Web server-based applications

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