航海英语 船舶与海洋工程英语 船员英语 水手英语 海运英语
The Naval Architect 船舶设计师
A naval architect asked to design a ship may receive his instructions in a form ranging from such simple requirements as “an oil tanker to carry 100 000 tons deadweight at 15 knots” to a fully detailed specification of precisely planned requirements. He is usually required to prepare a design for a vessel that must carry a certain weight of cargo (or number of passengers ) at a specified speed with particular reference to trade requirement; high-density cargoes, such as machinery, require little hold capacity, while the reverse is true for low-density cargoes, such as grain.
Deadweight is defined as weight of cargo plus fuel and consumable stores, and lightweight as the weight of the hull, including machinery and equipment. The designer must choose dimensions such that the displacement of the vessel is equal to the sum of the dead weight and the lightweight tonnages. The fineness of the hull must be appropriate to the speed. The draft------which is governed by freeboard rules------enables the depth to be determined to a first approximation.
After selecting tentative values of length, breadth, depth, draft, and displacement, the designer must achieve a weight balance. He must also select a moment balance because centres of gravity in both longitudinal and vertical directions must provide satisfactory trim and stability. Additionally, he must estimate the shaft horsepower required for the specified speed; this determines the weight of machinery. The strength of the hull must be adequate for the service intended, detailed scantlings (frame dimensions and plate thicknesses ) can be obtained from the rules of the classification society. These scantings determine the requisite weight of hull steel.
The vessel should possess satisfactory steering characteristics, freedom from troublesome vibration, and should comply with the many varied requirements of international regulations. Possessing an attractive appearance, the ship should have the minimum net register tonnage, the factor on which harbour and other dues are based. (The gross tonnage represents the volume of all closed-in spaces above the inner bottom. The net tonnage is the gross tonnage minus certain deductible spaces that do not produce revenue. Net tonnage can therefore be regarded as a measure of the earning capacity of the ship, hence its use as a basis for harbour and docking charges. ) Passenger vessels must satisfy a standard of bulkhead subdivision that will ensure adequate stability under specified conditions if the hull is pierced accidentally or through collision.
Compromise plays a considerable part in producing a satisfactory design. A naval architect must be a master of approximations. If the required design closely resembles that of a ship already built for which full information is available, the designer can calculate the effects of differences between this ship and the projected ship. If, however, this information is not available, he must first produce coefficients based upon experience and, after refining them, check the results by calculation.
There are four major requirements for a good naval architect. The first is a clear understanding of the fundamental principles of applied science, particularly those aspects of science that have direct application to ships------mathematics, physics, mechanics, fluid mechanics, materials, structural strength, stability, resistance, and propulsion. The second is a detailed knowledge of past and present practice in shipbuilding. The third is personal experience of accepted methods in the design, construction, and operation of ships; and the fourth, and perhaps most important, is an aptitude for tackling new technical problems and of devising practical solutions.
The professional training of naval architects differs widely in the various maritime countries. Unimany universities and polytechnic schools; such academic training must be supplemented by practical experience in a shipyard.
Trends in design
The introduction of calculating machines and computers has facilitated the complex calculations required in naval architecture and has also introduced new concepts in design. There are many combinations of length, breadth, and draft that will give a required displacement. Electronic computers make it possible to prepare series of designs for a vessel to operate in a particular service and to assess the economic returns to the shipowner for each separate design. Such a procedure is best carried out as a joint exercise by owner and builder. As ships increase in size and cost, such combined technical and economic studies can be expected to become more common.
(From “Encyclopedia Britannica”, Vol. 16, 1980)
Technical terms 术语
naval architect 造船工程（设计）师
oil tanker 油轮
hold capacity 舱容
consumable store 消耗物品
light weight 轻载重量、空船重量
longitudinal direction 纵向
vertical direction 垂向
shaft horse power 轴马力
classification society 船级社
net register tonnage 净登记吨位
gross tonnage 总吨位
deductible space 扣除空间
fluid mechanics 流体力学
structural strength 结构强度
polytechnical school 工艺（科技）学校
electronic computer 电子计算机
Additional Terms and Expressions 增补术语表达
the Chinese Society of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering (CSNAME) 中国造船工程学会
the Chinese Society of Navigation中国航海学会
“Shipbuilding of China” 中国造船
Ship Engineering 船舶工程
China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC) 中国船舶工业总公司
China offshore Platform Engineering Corporation (COPECO) 中国海洋石油平台工程公司
Royal Institution of Naval Architects (RINA) 英国皇家造船工程师学会
Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME) 美国造船师与轮机工程师协会
Principle of naval architecture 造船原理
ship statics (or statics of naval architecture) 造船静力学
ship dynamics 船舶动力学
ship resistance and propulsion 船舶阻力和推进
ship rolling and pitching 船舶摇摆
ship manoeuvrability 船舶操纵性
ship construction 船舶结构
ship structural mechanics 船舶结构力学
ship strength and structural design 船舶强度和结构设计
ship design 船舶设计
shipbuilding technology 造船工艺
marine (or ocean) engineering 海洋工程
Notes to the Text 课文注释
range from A to B 的意思为“从A到B的范围内”，翻译时，根据这个基本意思可以按汉语习惯译成中文。例：
Lathe sizes range from very little lathes with the length of the bed in several inches to very large ones turning a work many feet in length.
Such that 可以认为是such a kind/value 等的缩写，意思为“这样的类别/值等……以至于……”。译成中文是，可根据具体情况加以意译。例：
The depth of the chain locker is such that the cable is easily stowed.
Possessing an attractive appearance, the ship should have the minimum net register tonnage,the factor on which harbour and oyher dues are based.
Possessing an attractive appearance现在分词短语，用作表示条件的状语，意译成“船舶除有一个漂亮的外形……”。一般说，如分词短语谓语句首，通常表示时间、条件、原因等。
The factor on which…are based中的the factor是前面the minimum net register tonnage的铜谓语，而on which…are based是定语从句，修饰the factor。
Electroniccomputers make it possible to prepare series id designs for a vessel to operate in a particular service and to assess the economic returns to the shipowner for each separate design.
句中的it是形式宾语，实际宾语为不定式短语 to prepare series of designs …和to assess the economic returns …