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诸子百家 儒家 孟子 公孙丑下(中英文)

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中华国学 诸子百家 中英双语 儒家 孟子 The Works of Mencius


公孙丑下 - Gong Sun Chou II

10  公孙丑下: 孟子曰:“天时不如地利,地利不如人和。三里之城,七里之郭,环而攻之而不胜。夫环而攻之,必有得天时者矣;然而不胜者,是天时不如地利也。城非不高也,池非不深也,兵革非不坚利也,米粟非不多也;委而去之,是地利不如人和也。故曰:域民不以封疆之界,固国不以山溪之险,威天下不以兵革之利。得道者多助,失道者寡助。寡助之至,亲戚畔之;多助之至,天下顺之。以天下之所顺,攻亲戚之所畔;故君子有不战,战必胜矣。”

Gong Sun Chou II: Mencius said, 'Opportunities of time vouchsafed by Heaven are not equal to advantages of situation afforded by the Earth, and advantages of situation afforded by the Earth are not equal to the union arising from the accord of Men. There is a city, with an inner wall of three li in circumference, and an outer wall of seven. The enemy surround and attack it, but they are not able to take it. Now, to surround and attack it, there must have been vouchsafed to them by Heaven the opportunity of time, and in such case their not taking it is because opportunities of time vouchsafed by Heaven are not equal to advantages of situation afforded by the Earth. There is a city, whose walls are distinguished for their height, and whose moats are distinguished for their depth, where the arms of its defenders, offensive and defensive, are distinguished for their strength and sharpness, and the stores of rice and other grain are very large. Yet it is obliged to be given up and abandoned. This is because advantages of situation afforded by the Earth are not equal to the union arising from the accord of Men. In accordance with these principles it is said, "A people is bounded in, not by the limits of dykes and borders; a State is secured, not by the strengths of mountains and rivers; the kingdom is overawed, not by the sharpness and strength of arms." He who finds the proper course has many to assist him. He who loses the proper course has few to assist him. When this - the being assisted by few - reaches its extreme point, his own relations revolt from the prince. When the being assisted by many reaches its highest point, the whole kingdom becomes obedient to the prince. When one to whom the whole kingdom is prepared to be obedient, attacks those from whom their own relations revolt, what must be the result? Therefore, the true ruler will prefer not to fight; but if he do fight, he must overcome.'
 
11  公孙丑下: 孟子将朝王,王使人来曰:“寡人如就见者也,有寒疾,不可以风。朝将视朝,不识可使寡人得见乎?”对曰:“不幸而有疾,不能造朝。”

Gong Sun Chou II: As Mencius was about to go to court to see the king, the king sent a person to him with this message: 'I was wishing to come and see you. But I have got a cold, and may not expose myself to the wind. In the morning I will hold my court. I do not know whether you will give me the opportunity of seeing you then.' Mencius replied, 'Unfortunately, I am unwell, and not able to go to the court.'

   明日,出吊于东郭氏,公孙丑曰:“昔者辞以病,今日吊,或者不可乎!”曰:“昔者疾,今日愈,如之何不吊?”

Next day, he went out to pay a visit of condolence to some one of the Dong Guo family, when Gong Sun Chou said to him, 'Yesterday, you declined going to the court on the ground of being unwell, and to-day you are going to pay a visit of condolence. May this not be regarded as improper?' 'Yesterday,' said Mencius, 'I was unwell; to-day, I am better - why should I not pay this visit?'

   王使人问疾,医来。孟仲子对曰:“昔者有王命,有采薪之忧,不能造朝。今病小愈,趋造于朝,我不识能至否乎?”使数人要于路,曰:“请必无归,而造于朝!”

In the mean time, the king sent a messenger to inquire about his sickness, and also a physician. Meng Zhong replied to them, 'Yesterday, when the king's order came, he was feeling a little unwell, and could not go to the court. To-day he was a little better, and hastened to go to court. I do not know whether he can have reached it by this time or not.' Having said this, he sent several men to look for Mencius on the way, and say to him, 'I beg that, before you return home, you will go to the court.'

   不得已而之景丑氏宿焉。景子曰:“内则父子,外则君臣,人之大伦也。父子主恩,君臣主敬。丑见王之敬子也,未见所以敬王也。”

On this, Mencius felt himself compelled to go to Jing Chou's, and there stop the night. Mr. Jing said to him, 'In the family, there is the relation of father and son; abroad, there is the relation of prince and minister. These are the two great relations among men. Between father and son the ruling principle is kindness. Between prince and minister the ruling principle is respect. I have seen the respect of the king to you, Sir, but I have not seen in what way you show respect to him.'

   曰:“恶!是何言也!齐人无以仁义与王言者,岂以仁义为不美也?其心曰‘是何足与言仁义也’云尔,则不敬莫大乎是。我非尧舜之道,不敢以陈于王前,故齐人莫如我敬王也。”

Mencius replied, 'Oh! what words are these? Among the people of Qi there is no one who speaks to the king about benevolence and righteousness. Are they thus silent because they do not think that benevolence and righteousness are admirable? No, but in their hearts they say, "This man is not fit to be spoken with about benevolence and righteousness." Thus they manifest a disrespect than which there can be none greater. I do not dare to set forth before the king any but the ways of Yao and Shun. There is therefore no man of Qi who respects the king so much as I do.'

   景子曰:“否,非此之谓也。礼曰:‘父召,无诺;君命召,不俟驾。’固将朝也,闻王命而遂不果,宜与夫礼若不相似然。”

Mr. Jing said, 'Not so. That was not what I meant. In the Book of Rites it is said, "When a father calls, the answer must be without a moment's hesitation. When the prince's order calls, the carriage must not be waited for." You were certainly going to the court, but when you heard the king's order, then you did not carry your purpose out. This does seem as if it were not in accordance with that rule of propriety.'

   曰:“岂谓是与?曾子曰:‘晋楚之富,不可及也。彼以其富,我以吾仁;彼以其爵,我以吾义,吾何慊乎哉?’夫岂不义而曾子言之?是或一道也。天下有达尊三:爵一,齿一,德一。朝廷莫如爵,乡党莫如齿,辅世长民莫如德。恶得有其一,以慢其二哉?故将大有为之君,必有所不召之臣。欲有谋焉,则就之。其尊德乐道,不如是不足与有为也。故汤之于伊尹,学焉而后臣之,故不劳而王;桓公之于管仲,学焉而后臣之,故不劳而霸。今天下地丑德齐,莫能相尚。无他,好臣其所教,而不好臣其所受教。汤之于伊尹,桓公之于管仲,则不敢召。管仲且犹不可召,而况不为管仲者乎?”

Mencius answered him, 'How can you give that meaning to my conduct? The philosopher Zeng said, "The wealth of Jin and Chu cannot be equalled. Let their rulers have their wealth - I have my benevolence. Let them have their nobility - I have my righteousness. Wherein should I be dissatisfied as inferior to them?" Now shall we say that these sentiments are not right? Seeing that the philosopher Zeng spoke them, there is in them, I apprehend, a real principle. In the kingdom there are three things universally acknowledged to be honourable. Nobility is one of them; age is one of them; virtue is one of them. In courts, nobility holds the first place of the three; in villages, age holds the first place; and for helping one's generation and presiding over the people, the other two are not equal to virtue. How can the possession of only one of these be presumed on to despise one who possesses the other two? Therefore a prince who is to accomplish great deeds will certainly have ministers whom he does not call to go to him. When he wishes to consult with them, he goes to them. The prince who does not honour the virtuous, and delight in their ways of doing, to this extent, is not worth having to do with. Accordingly, there was the behaviour of Tang to Yi Yin: he first learned of him, and then employed him as his minister; and so without difficulty he became sovereign. There was the behaviour of the duke Huan to Guan Zhong: he first learned of him, and then employed him as his minister; and so without difficulty he became chief of all the princes. Now throughout the kingdom, the territories of the princes are of equal extent, and in their achievements they are on a level. Not one of them is able to exceed the others. This is from no other reason, but that they love to make ministers of those whom they teach, and do not love to make ministers of those by whom they might be taught. So did Tang behave to Yi Yin, and the duke Huan to Guan Zhong, that they would not venture to call them to go to them. If Guan Zhong might not be called to him by his prince, how much less may he be called, who would not play the part of Guan Zhong!'
 
12  公孙丑下: 陈臻问曰:“前日于齐,王馈兼金一百而不受;于宋,馈七十镒而受;于薛,馈五十镒而受。前日之不受是,则今日之受非也;今日之受是,则前日之不受非也。夫子必居一于此矣。”

Gong Sun Chou II: Chen Zhen asked Mencius, saying, 'Formerly, when you were in Qi, the king sent you a present Of 2,400 taels of fine silver, and you refused to accept it. When you were in Song, 1,680 taels were sent to you, which you accepted; and when you were in Xue, 1,200 taels were sent, which you likewise accepted. If your declining to accept the gift in the first case was right, your accepting it in the latter cases was wrong. If your accepting it in the latter cases was right, your declining to do so in the first case was wrong. You must accept, Master, one of these alternatives.'

   孟子曰:“皆是也。当在宋也,予将有远行。行者必以赆,辞曰:‘馈赆。’予何为不受?当在薛也,予有戒心。辞曰:‘闻戒。’故为兵馈之,予何为不受?若于齐,则未有处也。无处而馈之,是货之也。焉有君子而可以货取乎?”

Mencius said, 'I did right in all the cases. When I was in Song, I was about to take a long journey. Travellers must be provided with what is necessary for their expenses. The prince's message was, 'A present against travelling-expenses." Why should I have declined the gift? When I was in Xue, I was apprehensive for my safety, and taking measures for my protection. The message was, "I have heard that you are taking measures to protect yourself, and send this to help you in procuring arms." Why should I have declined the gift? But when I was in Qi, I had no occasion for money. To send a man a gift when he has no occasion for it, is to bribe him. How is it possible that a superior man should be taken with a bribe?'
 
13  公孙丑下: 孟子之平陆。谓其大夫曰:“子之持戟之士,一日而三失伍,则去之否乎?”

Gong Sun Chou II: Mencius having gone to Ping Lu, addressed the governor of it, saying, 'If one of your spearmen should lose his place in the ranks three times in one day, would you, Sir, put him to death or not?'

   曰:“不待三。”

'I would not wait for three times to do so,' was the reply.

   “然则子之失伍也亦多矣。凶年饥岁,子之民,老羸转于沟壑,壮者散而之四方者,几千人矣。”

Mencius said, 'Well then, you, Sir, have likewise lost your place in the ranks many times. In bad calamitous years, and years of famine, the old and feeble of your people, who have been found lying in the ditches and water-channels, and the able-bodied, who have been scattered about to the four quarters, have amounted to several thousand.'

   曰:“此非距心之所得为也。”

The governor replied, 'That is a state of things in which it does not belong to me Ju Xin to act.'

   曰:“今有受人之牛羊而为之牧之者,则必为之求牧与刍矣。求牧与刍而不得,则反诸其人乎?抑亦立而视其死与?”

'Here,' said Mencius, 'is a man who receives charge of the cattle and sheep of another, and undertakes to feed them for him - of course he must search for pasture-ground and grass for them. If, after searching for those, he cannot find them, will he return his charge to the owner? or will he stand by and see them die?'

   曰:“此则距心之罪也。”

'Herein,' said the officer, 'I am guilty.'

   他日,见于王曰:“王之为都者,臣知五人焉。知其罪者,惟孔距心。为王诵之。”王曰:“此则寡人之罪也。”

Another day, Mencius had an audience of the king, and said to him, 'Of the governors of your Majesty's cities I am acquainted with five, but the only one of them who knows his faults is Kong Ju Xin.' He then repeated the conversation to the king, who said, 'In this matter, I am the guilty one.'

 
14  公孙丑下: 孟子谓蚔鼃曰:“子之辞灵丘而请士师,似也,为其可以言也。今既数月矣,未可以言与?”

Gong Sun Chou II: Mencius said to Qi Wa, 'There seemed to be reason in your declining the governorship of Ling Qiu, and requesting to be appointed chief criminal judge, because the latter office would afford you the opportunity of speaking your views. Now several months have elapsed, and have you yet found nothing of which you might speak?'

   蚔鼃谏于王而不用,致为臣而去。齐人曰:“所以为蚔¨,则善矣;所以自为,则吾不知也。”

On this, Qi Wa remonstrated on some matter with the king, and, his counsel not being taken, resigned his office and went away. The people of Qi said, 'In the course which he marked out for Qi Wa he did well, but we do not know as to the course which he pursues for himself.'

   公都子以告。曰:“吾闻之也:有官守者,不得其职则去;有言责者,不得其言则去。我无官守,我无言责也,则吾进退,岂不绰绰然有馀裕哉?”

His disciple Gong Du told him these remarks. Mencius said, 'I have heard that he who is in charge of an office, when he is prevented from fulfilling its duties, ought to take his departure, and that he on whom is the responsibility of giving his opinion, when he finds his words unattended to, ought to do the same. But I am in charge of no office; on me devolves no duty of speaking out my opinion - may not I therefore act freely and without any constraint, either in going forward or in retiring?'
 
15  公孙丑下: 孟子为卿于齐,出吊于滕,王使盖大夫王驩为辅行。王驩朝暮见,反齐滕之路,未尝与之言行事也。

Gong Sun Chou II: Mencius, occupying the position of a high dignitary in Qi, went on a mission of condolence to Teng. The king also sent Wang Huan, the governor of Gai, as assistant-commissioner. Wang Huan, morning and evening, waited upon Mencius, who, during all the way to Teng and back, never spoke to him about the business of their mission.

   公孙丑曰:“齐卿之位,不为小矣;齐滕之路,不为近矣。反之而未尝与言行事,何也?”

Gong Sun Chou said to Mencius, 'The position of a high dignitary of Qi is not a small one; the road from Qi to Teng is not short. How was it that during all the way there and back, you never spoke to Huan about the matters of your mission?'

   曰:“夫既或治之,予何言哉?”

Mencius replied, 'There were the proper officers who attended to them. What occasion had I to speak to him about them?'
 
16  公孙丑下: 孟子自齐葬于鲁,反于齐,止于嬴。

Gong Sun Chou II: Mencius went from Qi to Lu to bury his mother. On his return to Qi, he stopped at Ying, where

   充虞请曰:“前日不知虞之不肖,使虞敦匠事。严,虞不敢请。今愿窃有请也,木若以美然。”

Chong Yu begged to put a question to him, and said, 'Formerly, in ignorance of my incompetency, you employed me to superintend the making of the coffin. As you were then pressed by the urgency of the business, I did not venture to put any question to you. Now, however, I wish to take the liberty to submit the matter. The wood of the coffin, it appeared to me, was too good.'
 
   曰:“古者棺椁无度,中古棺七寸,椁称之。自天子达于庶人。非直为观美也,然后尽于人心。不得,不可以为悦;无财,不可以为悦。得之为有财,古之人皆用之,吾何为独不然?且比化者,无使土亲肤,于人心独无恔乎?吾闻之君子:不以天下俭其亲。”

Mencius replied, 'Anciently, there was no rule for the size of either the inner or the outer coffin. In middle antiquity, the inner coffin was made seven inches thick, and the outer one the same. This was done by all, from the sovereign to the common people, and not simply for the beauty of the appearance, but because they thus satisfied the natural feelings of their hearts. If prevented by statutory regulations from making their coffins in this way, men cannot have the feeling of pleasure. If they have not the money to make them in this way, they cannot have the feeling of pleasure. When they were not prevented, and had the money, the ancients all used this style. Why should I alone not do so? And moreover, is there no satisfaction to the natural feelings of a man, in preventing the earth from getting near to the bodies of his dead? I have heard that the superior man will not for all the world be niggardly to his parents.'

 
17  公孙丑下: 沈同以其私问曰:“燕可伐与?”

Gong Sun Chou II: Shen Tong, on his own impulse, asked Mencius, saying, 'May Yan be smitten?'

   孟子曰:“可。子哙不得与人燕,子之不得受燕于子哙。有仕于此,而子悦之,不告于王而私与之吾子之禄爵;夫士也,亦无王命而私受之于子,则可乎?何以异于是?”

Mencius replied, 'It may. Zi Kuai had no right to give Yan to another man, and Zi Zhi had no right to receive Yan from Zi Kuai. Suppose there were an officer here, with whom you, Sir, were pleased, and that, without informing the king, you were privately to give to him your salary and rank; and suppose that this officer, also without the king's orders, were privately to receive them from you - would such a transaction be allowable? And where is the difference between the case of Yan and this?'

   齐人伐燕。或问曰:“劝齐伐燕,有诸?”

The people of Qi smote Yan. Some one asked Mencius, saying, 'Is it really the case that you advised Qi to smite Yan?'

   曰:“未也。沈同问‘燕可伐与’?吾应之曰‘可’,彼然而伐之也。彼如曰‘孰可以伐之’?则将应之曰:‘为天吏,则可以伐之。’今有杀人者,或问之曰‘人可杀与’?则将应之曰‘可’。彼如曰‘孰可以杀之’?则将应之曰:‘为士师,则可以杀之。’今以燕伐燕,何为劝之哉?”

He replied, 'No. Shen Tong asked me whether Yan might be smitten, and I answered him, "It may." They accordingly went and smote it. If he had asked me, "Who may smite it?" I would have answered him, "He who is the minister of Heaven may smite it." Suppose the case of a murderer, and that one asks me, "May this man be put to death?" I will answer him, "He may." If he ask me, "Who may put him to death?" I will answer him, "The chief criminal judge may put him to death." But now with one Yan to smite another Yan - how should I have advised this?'
 
18  公孙丑下: 燕人畔。王曰:“吾甚惭于孟子。”

Gong Sun Chou II: The people of Yan having rebelled, the king of Qi said, 'I feel very much ashamed when I think of Mencius.'

   陈贾曰:“王无患焉。王自以为与周公,孰仁且智?”

Chen Jia said to him, 'Let not your Majesty be grieved. Whether does your Majesty consider yourself or Zhou Gong the more benevolent and wise?'

   王曰:“恶!是何言也?”

The king replied, 'Oh! what words are those?'

   曰:“周公使管叔监殷,管叔以殷畔。知而使之,是不仁也;不知而使之,是不智也。仁智,周公未之尽也,而况于王乎?贾请见而解之。”

'The duke of Zhou,' said Jia, 'appointed Guan Shu to oversee the heir of Yin, but Guan Shu with the power of the Yin State rebelled. If knowing that this would happen he appointed Guan Shu, he was deficient in benevolence. If he appointed him, not knowing that it would happen, he was deficient in knowledge. If the duke of Zhou was not completely benevolent and wise, how much less can your Majesty be expected to be so! I beg to go and see Mencius, and relieve your Majesty from that feeling.'

   见孟子,问曰:“周公何人也?”

Chen Jia accordingly saw Mencius, and asked him, saying, 'What kind of man was the duke of Zhou?'

   曰:“古圣人也。”

'An ancient sage,' was the reply.

   曰:“使管叔监殷,管叔以殷畔也,有诸?”

'Is it the fact, that he appointed Guan Shu to oversee the heir of Yin, and that Guan Shu with the State of Yin rebelled?'

   曰:“然。”

'It is.'

   曰:“周公知其将畔而使之与?”

'Did the duke of Zhou know that he would rebel, and purposely appoint him to that office?'

   曰:“不知也。”

Mencius said, 'He did not know.'

   “然则圣人且有过与?”

'Then, though a sage, he still fell into error?'

   曰:“周公,弟也;管叔,兄也。周公之过,不亦宜乎?且古之君子,过则改之;今之君子,过则顺之。古之君子,其过也,如日月之食,民皆见之;及其更也,民皆仰之。今之君子,岂徒顺之,又从为之辞。”

'The duke of Zhou,' answered Mencius, 'was the younger brother. Guan Shu was his elder brother. Was not the error of Zhou Gong in accordance with what is right? Moreover, when the superior men of old had errors, they reformed them. The superior men of the present time, when they have errors, persist in them. The errors of the superior men of old were like eclipses of the sun and moon. All the people witnessed them, and when they had reformed them, all the people looked up to them with their former admiration. But do the superior men of the present day only persist in their errors? They go on to apologize for them likewise.'

 
19  公孙丑下: 孟子致为臣而归。王就见孟子,曰:“前日愿见而不可得,得侍,同朝甚喜。今又弃寡人而归,不识可以继此而得见乎?”对曰:“不敢请耳,固所愿也。”

Gong Sun Chou II: Mencius gave up his office, and made arrangements for returning to his native State. The king came to visit him, and said, 'Formerly, I wished to see you, but in vain. Then, I got the opportunity of being by your side, and all my court joyed exceedingly along with me. Now again you abandon me, and are returning home. I do not know if hereafter I may expect to have another opportunity of seeing you.' Mencius replied, 'I dare not request permission to visit you at any particular time, but, indeed, it is what I desire.'

   他日,王谓时子曰:“我欲中国而授孟子室,养弟子以万锺,使诸大夫国人皆有所矜式。子盍为我言之?”

Another day, the king said to the officer Shi, 'I wish to give Mencius a house, somewhere in the middle of the kingdom, and to support his disciples with an allowance of 10,000 zhong, that all the officers and the people may have such an example to reverence and imitate. Had you not better tell him this for me?'

   时子因陈子而以告孟子,陈子以时子之言告孟子。孟子曰:“然。夫时子恶知其不可也?如使予欲富,辞十万而受万,是为欲富乎?季孙曰:‘异哉子叔疑!使己为政,不用,则亦已矣,又使其子弟为卿。人亦孰不欲富贵?而独于富贵之中,有私龙断焉。’古之为市也,以其所有易其所无者,有司者治之耳。有贱丈夫焉,必求龙断而登之,以左右望而罔市利。人皆以为贱,故从而征之。征商,自此贱丈夫始矣。

Shi took advantage to convey this message by means of the disciple Chen, who reported his words to Mencius. Mencius said, 'Yes; but how should the officer Shi know that the thing could not be? Suppose that I wanted to be rich, having formerly declined 100,000 zhong, would my now accepting 10,000 be the conduct of one desiring riches? Ji Sun said, "A strange man was Zi Shu Yi. He pushed himself into the service of government. His prince declining to employ him, he had to retire indeed, but he again schemed that his son or younger brother should be made a high officer. Who indeed is there of men but wishes for riches and honour? But he only, among the seekers of these, tried to monopolize the conspicuous mound. "Of old time, the market-dealers exchanged the articles which they had for others which they had not, and simply had certain officers to keep order among them. It happened that there was a mean fellow, who made it a point to look out for a conspicuous mound, and get up upon it. Thence he looked right and left, to catch in his net the whole gain of the market. The people all thought his conduct mean, and therefore they proceeded to lay a tax upon his wares. The taxing of traders took its rise from this mean fellow."'
 
20  公孙丑下: 孟子去齐,宿于昼。

Gong Sun Chou II: Mencius, having taken his leave of Qi, was passing the night in Zhou.

   有欲为王留行者,坐而言。不应,隐几而卧。客不悦曰:“弟子齐宿而后敢言,夫子卧而不听,请勿复敢见矣。”

A person who wished to detain him on behalf of the king, came and sat down, and began to speak to him. Mencius gave him no answer, but leant upon his stool and slept. The visitor was displeased, and said, 'I passed the night in careful vigil, before I would venture to speak to you, and you, Master, sleep and do not listen to me. Allow me to request that I may not again presume to see you.'

   曰:“坐!我明语子。昔者鲁缪公无人乎子思之侧,则不能安子思;泄柳、申详,无人乎缪公之侧,则不能安其身。子为长者虑,而不及子思,子绝长者乎?长者绝子乎?”

Mencius replied, 'Sit down, and I will explain the case clearly to you. Formerly, if the duke Mou had not kept a person by the side of Zi Si, he could not have induced Zi Si to remain with him. If Xie Liu and Shen Xiang had not had a remembrancer by the side of the duke Mou, he would not have been able to make them feel at home and remain with him. You anxiously form plans with reference to me, but you do not treat me as Zi Si was treated. Is it you, Sir, who cut me? Or is it I who cut you?

 
21  公孙丑下: 孟子去齐。尹士语人曰:“不识王之不可以为汤武,则是不明也;识其不可,然且至,则是干泽也。千里而见王,不遇故去。三宿而后出昼,是何濡滞也?士则兹不悦。”

Gong Sun Chou II: When Mencius had left Qi, Yin Shi spoke about him to others, saying, 'If he did not know that the king could not be made a Tang or a Wu, that showed his want of intelligence. If he knew that he could not be made such, and came notwithstanding, that shows he was seeking his own benefit. He came a thousand li to wait on the king; because he did not find in him a ruler to suit him, he took his leave, but how dilatory and lingering was his departure, stopping three nights before he quitted Zhou! I am dissatisfied on account of this.'

   高子以告。曰:“夫尹士恶知予哉?千里而见王,是予所欲也;不遇故去,岂予所欲哉?予不得已也。予三宿而出昼,于予心犹以为速。王庶几改之。王如改诸,则必反予。夫出昼而王不予追也,予然后浩然有归志。予虽然,岂舍王哉?王由足用为善。王如用予,则岂徒齐民安,天下之民举安。王庶几改之,予日望之。予岂若是小丈夫然哉?谏于其君而不受,则怒,悻悻然见于其面。去则穷日之力而后宿哉?”

The disciple Gao informed Mencius of these remarks. Mencius said, 'How should Yin Shi know me! When I came a thousand li to wait on the king, it was what I desired to do. When I went away because I did not find in him a ruler to suit me, was that what I desired to do? I felt myself constrained to do it. When I stopped three nights before I quitted Zhou, in my own mind I still considered my departure speedy. I was hoping that the king might change. If the king had changed, he would certainly have recalled me. When I quitted Zhou, and the king had not sent after me, then, and not till then, was my mind resolutely bent on returning to Cao. But, notwithstanding that, how can it be said that I give up the king? The king, after all, is one who may be made to do what is good. If he were to use me, would it be for the happiness of the people of Qi only ? It would be for the happiness of the people of the whole kingdom. I am hoping that the king will change. I am daily hoping for this. Am I like one of your little-minded people? They will remonstrate with their prince, and on their remonstrance not being accepted, they get angry; and, with their passion displayed in their countenance, they take their leave, and travel with all their strength for a whole day, before they will stop for the night.'

   尹士闻之曰:“士诚小人也。”

When Yin Shi heard this explanation, he said, 'I am indeed a small man.'
 
22  公孙丑下: 孟子去齐。充虞路问曰:“夫子若有不豫色然。前日虞闻诸夫子曰:‘君子不怨天,不尤人。’”

Gong Sun Chou II: When Mencius left Qi, Chong Yu questioned him upon the way, saying, 'Master, you look like one who carries an air of dissatisfaction in his countenance. But formerly I heard you say, "The superior man does not murmur against Heaven, nor grudge against men."'

   曰:“彼一时,此一时也。五百年必有王者兴,其间必有名世者。由周而来,七百有馀岁矣。以其数则过矣,以其时考之则可矣。夫天,未欲平治天下也;如欲平治天下,当今之世,舍我其谁也?吾何为不豫哉?”

Mencius said, 'That was one time, and this is another. It is a rule that a true royal sovereign should arise in the course of five hundred years, and that during that time there should be men illustrious in their generation. From the commencement of the Zhou dynasty till now, more than seven hundred years have elapsed. Judging numerically, the date is past. Examining the character of the present time, we might expect the rise of such individuals in it. But Heaven does not yet wish that the kingdom should enjoy tranquillity and good order. If it wished this, who is there besides me to bring it about? How should I be otherwise than dissatisfied?'

 
23  公孙丑下: 孟子去齐,居休。

Gong Sun Chou II: When Mencius left Qi, he dwelt in Xiu.

   公孙丑问曰:“仕而不受禄,古之道乎?”

There Gong Sun Chou asked him, saying, 'Was it the way of the ancients to hold office without receiving salary?'

   曰:“非也。于崇,吾得见王。退而有去志,不欲变,故不受也。继而有师命,不可以请。久于齐,非我志也。”

Mencius replied, 'No; when I first saw the king in Chong, it was my intention, on retiring from the interview, to go away. Because I did not wish to change this intention, I declined to receive any salary. Immediately after, there came orders for the collection of troops, when it would have been improper for me to beg permission to leave. But to remain so long in Qi was not my purpose.'

 

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