诸子百家 儒家 论语 阳货 Sinology Confucianism, the Analects of Confucius
1 阳货: 阳货欲见孔子，孔子不见，归孔子豚。孔子时其亡也，而往拜之，遇诸涂。谓孔子曰：“来！予与尔言。”曰：“怀其宝而迷其邦，可谓仁乎？”曰：“不可。”“好从事而亟失时，可谓知乎？”曰：“不可。”“日月逝矣，岁不我与。”孔子曰：“诺。吾将仕矣。”
Yang Huo: Yang Huo wished to see Confucius, but Confucius would not go to see him. On this, he sent a present of a pig to Confucius, who, having chosen a time when Huo was not at home, went to pay his respects for the gift. He met him, however, on the way. Huo said to Confucius, "Come, let me speak with you." He then asked, "Can he be called benevolent who keeps his jewel in his bosom, and leaves his country to confusion?" Confucius replied, "No." "Can he be called wise, who is anxious to be engaged in public employment, and yet is constantly losing the opportunity of being so?" Confucius again said, "No." "The days and months are passing away; the years do not wait for us." Confucius said, "Right; I will go into office."
2 阳货: 子曰：“性相近也，习相远也。”
Yang Huo: The Master said, "By nature, men are nearly alike; by practice, they get to be wide apart."
3 阳货: 子曰：“唯上知与下愚不移。”
Yang Huo: The Master said, "There are only the wise of the highest class, and the stupid of the lowest class, who cannot be changed."
4 阳货: 子之武城，闻弦歌之声。夫子莞尔而笑，曰：“割鸡焉用牛刀？”子游对曰：“昔者偃也闻诸夫子曰：‘君子学道则爱人，小人学道则易使也。’”子曰：“二三子！偃之言是也。前言戏之耳。”
Yang Huo: The Master, having come to Wu Cheng, heard there the sound of stringed instruments and singing. Well pleased and smiling, he said, "Why use an ox knife to kill a fowl?" Zi You replied, "Formerly, Master, I heard you say, 'When the man of high station is well instructed, he loves men; when the man of low station is well instructed, he is easily ruled.'" The Master said, "My disciples, Yan's words are right. What I said was only in sport."
5 阳货: 公山弗扰以费畔，召，子欲往。子路不说，曰：“末之也已，何必公山氏之之也。”子曰：“夫召我者而岂徒哉？如有用我者，吾其为东周乎？”
Yang Huo: Gong Shan Fo Rao, when he was holding Fei, and in an attitude of rebellion, invited the Master to visit him, who was rather inclined to go. Zi Lu was displeased. and said, "Indeed, you cannot go! Why must you think of going to see Gong Shan?" The Master said, "Can it be without some reason that he has invited me? If any one employ me, may I not make an eastern Zhou?"
6 阳货: 子张问仁于孔子。孔子曰：“能行五者于天下，为仁矣。”请问之。曰：“恭、宽、信、敏、惠。恭则不侮，宽则得众，信则人任焉，敏则有功，惠则足以使人。”
Yang Huo: Zi Zhang asked Confucius about perfect virtue. Confucius said, "To be able to practice five things everywhere under heaven constitutes perfect virtue." He begged to ask what they were, and was told, "Gravity, generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness, and kindness. If you are grave, you will not be treated with disrespect. If you are generous, you will win all. If you are sincere, people will repose trust in you. If you are earnest, you will accomplish much. If you are kind, this will enable you to employ the services of others."
7 阳货: 佛肸召，子欲往。子路曰：“昔者由也闻诸夫子曰：‘亲于其身为不善者，君子不入也。’佛肸以中牟畔，子之往也，如之何！”子曰：“然。有是言也。不曰坚乎，磨而不磷；不曰白乎，涅而不缁。吾岂匏瓜也哉？焉能系而不食？”
Yang Huo: Fo Xi inviting him to visit him, the Master was inclined to go. Zi Lu said, "Master, formerly I have heard you say, 'When a man in his own person is guilty of doing evil, a superior man will not associate with him.' Fo Xi is in rebellion, holding possession of Zhong Mou; if you go to him, what shall be said?" The Master said, "Yes, I did use these words. But is it not said, that, if a thing be really hard, it may be ground without being made thin? Is it not said, that, if a thing be really white, it may be steeped in a dark fluid without being made black? Am I a bitter gourd? How can I be hung up out of the way of being eaten?"
8 阳货: 子曰：“由也，女闻六言六蔽矣乎？”对曰：“未也。”“居！吾语女。好仁不好学，其蔽也愚；好知不好学，其蔽也荡；好信不好学，其蔽也贼；好直不好学，其蔽也绞；好勇不好学，其蔽也乱；好刚不好学，其蔽也狂。”
Yang Huo: The Master said, "You, have you heard the six words to which are attached six becloudings?" You replied, "I have not." "Sit down, and I will tell them to you. There is the love of being benevolent without the love of learning - the beclouding here leads to a foolish simplicity. There is the love of knowing without the love of learning - the beclouding here leads to dissipation of mind. There is the love of being sincere without the love of learning - the beclouding here leads to an injurious disregard of consequences. There is the love of straightforwardness without the love of learning - the beclouding here leads to rudeness. There is the love of boldness without the love of learning - the beclouding here leads to insubordination. There is the love of firmness without the love of learning - the beclouding here leads to extravagant conduct."
9 阳货: 子曰：“小子！何莫学夫诗？诗，可以兴，可以观，可以群，可以怨。迩之事父，远之事君。多识于鸟兽草木之名。”
Yang Huo: The Master said, "My children, why do you not study the Book of Poetry? The Odes serve to stimulate the mind. They may be used for purposes of self-contemplation. They teach the art of sociability. They show how to regulate feelings of resentment. From them you learn the more immediate duty of serving one's father, and the remoter one of serving one's prince. From them we become largely acquainted with the names of birds, beasts, and plants."
10 阳货: 子谓伯鱼曰：“女为《周南》、《召南》矣乎？人而不为《周南》、《召南》，其犹正墙面而立也与？”
Yang Huo: The Master said to Bo Yu, "Do you give yourself to the Zhou Nan and the Shao Nan. The man who has not studied the Zhou Nan and the Shao Nan is like one who stands with his face right against a wall. Is he not so?"
11 阳货: 子曰：“礼云礼云，玉帛云乎哉？乐云乐云，钟鼓云乎哉？”
Yang Huo: The Master said, "'It is according to the rules of propriety,' they say. 'It is according to the rules of propriety,' they say. Are gems and silk all that is meant by propriety? 'It is music,' they say. 'It is music,' they say. Are bells and drums all that is meant by music?"
12 阳货: 子曰：“色厉而内荏，譬诸小人，其犹穿窬之盗也与？”
Yang Huo: The Master said, "He who puts on an appearance of stern firmness, while inwardly he is weak, is like one of the small, mean people - yea, is he not like the thief who breaks through, or climbs over, a wall?"
13 阳货: 子曰：“乡原，德之贼也。”
Yang Huo: The Master said, "Your good, careful people of the villages are the thieves of virtue."
14 阳货: 子曰：“道听而涂说，德之弃也。”
Yang Huo: The Master said, "To tell, as we go along, what we have heard on the way, is to cast away our virtue."
15 阳货: 子曰：“鄙夫！可与事君也与哉？其未得之也，患得之；既得之，患失之。苟患失之，无所不至矣。”
Yang Huo: The Master said, "There are those mean creatures! How impossible it is along with them to serve one's prince! While they have not got their aims, their anxiety is how to get them. When they have got them, their anxiety is lest they should lose them. When they are anxious lest such things should be lost, there is nothing to which they will not proceed."
16 阳货: 子曰：“古者民有三疾，今也或是之亡也。古之狂也肆，今之狂也荡；古之矜也廉，今之矜也忿戾；古之愚也直，今之愚也诈而已矣。”
Yang Huo: The Master said, "Anciently, men had three failings, which now perhaps are not to be found. The high-mindedness of antiquity showed itself in a disregard of small things; the high-mindedness of the present day shows itself in wild license. The stern dignity of antiquity showed itself in grave reserve; the stern dignity of the present day shows itself in quarrelsome perverseness. The stupidity of antiquity showed itself in straightforwardness; the stupidity of the present day shows itself in sheer deceit."
17 阳货: 子曰：“巧言令色，鲜矣仁。”
Yang Huo: The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with virtue."
18 阳货: 子曰：“恶紫之夺朱也，恶郑声之乱雅乐也，恶利口之覆邦家者。”
Yang Huo: The Master said, "I hate the manner in which purple takes away the luster of vermilion. I hate the way in which the songs of Zheng confound the music of the Ya. I hate those who with their sharp mouths overthrow kingdoms and families."
19 阳货: 子曰：“予欲无言。”子贡曰：“子如不言，则小子何述焉？”子曰：“天何言哉？四时行焉，百物生焉，天何言哉？”
Yang Huo: The Master said, "I would prefer not speaking." Zi Gong said, "If you, Master, do not speak, what shall we, your disciples, have to record?" The Master said, "Does Heaven speak? The four seasons pursue their courses, and all things are continually being produced, but does Heaven say anything?"
20 阳货: 孺悲欲见孔子，孔子辞以疾。将命者出户，取瑟而歌。使之闻之。
Yang Huo: Ru Bei wished to see Confucius, but Confucius declined, on the ground of being sick, to see him. When the bearer of this message went out at the door, (the Master) took his lute and sang to it, in order that Bei might hear him.
21 阳货: 宰我问：“三年之丧，期已久矣。君子三年不为礼，礼必坏；三年不为乐，乐必崩。旧谷既没，新谷既升，钻燧改火，期可已矣。”子曰：“食夫稻，衣夫锦，于女安乎？”曰：“安。”“女安则为之！夫君子之居丧，食旨不甘，闻乐不乐，居处不安，故不为也。今女安，则为之！”宰我出。子曰：“予之不仁也！子生三年，然后免于父母之怀。夫三年之丧，天下之通丧也。予也，有三年之爱于其父母乎？”
Yang Huo: Zai Wo asked about the three years' mourning for parents, saying that one year was long enough. "If the superior man," said he, "abstains for three years from the observances of propriety, those observances will be quite lost. If for three years he abstains from music, music will be ruined. Within a year the old grain is exhausted, and the new grain has sprung up, and, in procuring fire by friction, we go through all the changes of wood for that purpose. After a complete year, the mourning may stop." The Master said, "If you were, after a year, to eat good rice, and wear embroidered clothes, would you feel at ease?" "I should," replied Wo. The Master said, "If you can feel at ease, do it. But a superior man, during the whole period of mourning, does not enjoy pleasant food which he may eat, nor derive pleasure from music which he may hear. He also does not feel at ease, if he is comfortably lodged. Therefore he does not do what you propose. But now you feel at ease and may do it." Zai Wo then went out, and the Master said, "This shows Yu's want of virtue. It is not till a child is three years old that it is allowed to leave the arms of its parents. And the three years' mourning is universally observed throughout the empire. Did Yu enjoy the three years' love of his parents?"
22 阳货: 子曰：“饱食终日，无所用心，难矣哉！不有博弈者乎，为之犹贤乎已。”
Yang Huo: The Master said, "Hard is it to deal with who will stuff himself with food the whole day, without applying his mind to anything good! Are there not gamesters and chess players? To be one of these would still be better than doing nothing at all."
23 阳货: 子路曰：“君子尚勇乎？”子曰：“君子义以为上。君子有勇而无义为乱，小人有勇而无义为盗。”
Yang Huo: Zi Lu said, "Does the superior man esteem valor?" The Master said, "The superior man holds righteousness to be of highest importance. A man in a superior situation, having valor without righteousness, will be guilty of insubordination; one of the lower people having valor without righteousness, will commit robbery."
24 阳货: 子贡曰：“君子亦有恶乎？”子曰：“有恶：恶称人之恶者，恶居下流而讪上者，恶勇而无礼者，恶果敢而窒者。”曰：“赐也亦有恶乎？”“恶徼以为知者，恶不孙以为勇者，恶讦以为直者。”
Yang Huo: Zi Gong said, "Has the superior man his hatreds also?" The Master said, "He has his hatreds. He hates those who proclaim the evil of others. He hates the man who, being in a low station, slanders his superiors. He hates those who have valor merely, and are unobservant of propriety. He hates those who are forward and determined, and, at the same time, of contracted understanding." The Master then inquired, "Ci, have you also your hatreds?" Zi Gong replied, "I hate those who pry out matters, and ascribe the knowledge to their wisdom. I hate those who are only not modest, and think that they are valorous. I hate those who make known secrets, and think that they are straightforward."
25 阳货: 子曰：“唯女子与小人为难养也，近之则不孙，远之则怨。”
Yang Huo: The Master said, "Of all people, girls and servants are the most difficult to behave to. If you are familiar with them, they lose their humility. If you maintain a reserve towards them, they are discontented."
26 阳货: 子曰：“年四十而见恶焉，其终也已。”
Yang Huo: The Master said, "When a man at forty is the object of dislike, he will always continue what he is."
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