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诸子百家 儒家 论语 季氏 (中英文)

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诸子百家 儒家 论语 季氏  Sinology Confucianism, the Analects of Confucius


1  季氏: 季氏将伐颛臾。冉有、季路见于孔子曰:“季氏将有事于颛臾。”孔子曰:“求!无乃尔是过与?夫颛臾,昔者先王以为东蒙主,且在邦域之中矣,是社稷之臣也。何以伐为?”冉有曰:“夫子欲之,吾二臣者皆不欲也。”孔子曰:“求!周任有言曰:“陈力就列,不能者止。’危而不持,颠而不扶,则将焉用彼相矣?且尔言过矣。虎兕出于柙,龟玉毁于椟中,是谁之过与?”冉有曰:“今夫颛臾,固而近于费。今不取,后世必为子孙忧。”孔子曰:“求!君子疾夫舍曰欲之,而必为之辞。丘也闻有国有家者,不患寡而患不均,不患贫而患不安。盖均无贫,和无寡,安无倾。夫如是,故远人不服,则修文德以来之。既来之,则安之。今由与求也,相夫子,远人不服而不能来也;邦分崩离析而不能守也。而谋动干戈于邦内。吾恐季孙之忧,不在颛臾,而在萧墙之内也。”
 Ji Shi: The head of the Ji family was going to attack Zhuan Yu. Ran You and Ji Lu had an interview with Confucius, and said, "Our chief, Ji, is going to commence operations against Zhuan Yu." Confucius said, "Qiu, is it not you who are in fault here? Now, in regard to Zhuan Yu, long ago, a former king appointed its ruler to preside over the sacrifices to the eastern Mang; moreover, it is in the midst of the territory of our state; and its ruler is a minister in direct connection with the sovereign - What has your chief to do with attacking it?" Ran You said, "Our master wishes the thing; neither of us two ministers wishes it." Confucius said, "Qiu, there are the words of Zhou Ren, 'When he can put forth his ability, he takes his place in the ranks of office; when he finds himself unable to do so, he retires from it. How can he be used as a guide to a blind man, who does not support him when tottering, nor raise him up when fallen?' And further, you speak wrongly. When a tiger or rhinoceros escapes from his cage; when a tortoise or piece of jade is injured in its repository - whose is the fault?" Ran You said, "But at present, Zhuan Yu is strong and near to Fei; if our chief do not now take it, it will hereafter be a sorrow to his descendants." Confucius said. "Qiu, the superior man hates those declining to say 'I want such and such a thing,' and framing explanations for their conduct. I have heard that rulers of states and chiefs of families are not troubled lest their people should be few, but are troubled lest they should not keep their several places; that they are not troubled with fears of poverty, but are troubled with fears of a want of contented repose among the people in their several places. For when the people keep their several places, there will be no poverty; when harmony prevails, there will be no scarcity of people; and when there is such a contented repose, there will be no rebellious upsettings. So it is. Therefore, if remoter people are not submissive, all the influences of civil culture and virtue are to be cultivated to attract them to be so; and when they have been so attracted, they must be made contented and tranquil. Now, here are you, You and Qiu, assisting your chief. Remoter people are not submissive, and, with your help, he cannot attract them to him. In his own territory there are divisions and downfalls, leavings and separations, and, with your help, he cannot preserve it. And yet he is planning these hostile movements within the state. I am afraid that the sorrow of the Ji Sun family will not be on account of Zhuan Yu, but will be found within the screen of their own court."
 
2  季氏: 孔子曰:“天下有道,则礼乐征伐自天子出;天下无道,则礼乐征伐自诸侯出。自诸侯出,盖十世希不失矣;自大夫出,五世希不失矣;陪臣执国命,三世希不失矣。天下有道,则政不在大夫。天下有道,则庶人不议。”
 Ji Shi: Confucius said, "When good government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from the son of Heaven. When bad government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from the princes. When these things proceed from the princes, as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in ten generations. When they proceed from the great officers of the princes, as a rule, the case will be few in which they do not lose their power in five generations. When the subsidiary ministers of the great officers hold in their grasp the orders of the state, as a rule the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in three generations. When right principles prevail in the kingdom, government will not be in the hands of the great officers. When right principles prevail in the kingdom, there will be no discussions among the common people."
 
3  季氏: 孔子曰:“禄之去公室,五世矣;政逮于大夫,四世矣;故夫三桓之子孙,微矣。”
 Ji Shi: Confucius said, "The revenue of the state has left the ducal house now for five generations. The government has been in the hands of the great officers for four generations. On this account, the descendants of the three Huan are much reduced."
 
4  季氏: 孔子曰:“益者三友,损者三友。友直,友谅,友多闻,益矣。友便辟,友善柔,友便佞,损矣。”
 Ji Shi: Confucius said, "There are three friendships which are advantageous, and three which are injurious. Friendship with the uplight; friendship with the sincere; and friendship with the man of much observation - these are advantageous. Friendship with the man of specious airs; friendship with the insinuatingly soft; and friendship with the glib-tongued - these are injurious."
 
5  季氏: 孔子曰:“益者三乐,损者三乐。乐节礼乐,乐道人之善,乐多贤友,益矣。乐骄乐,乐佚游,乐宴乐,损矣。”
 Ji Shi: Confucius said, "There are three things men find enjoyment in which are advantageous, and three things they find enjoyment in which are injurious. To find enjoyment in the discriminating study of ceremonies and music; to find enjoyment in speaking of the goodness of others; to find enjoyment in having many worthy friends - these are advantageous. To find enjoyment in extravagant pleasures; to find enjoyment in idleness and sauntering; to find enjoyment in the pleasures of feasting - these are injurious."
 
6  季氏: 孔子曰:“侍于君子有三愆:言未及之而言谓之躁,言及之而不言谓之隐,未见颜色而言谓之瞽。”
 Ji Shi: Confucius said, "There are three errors to which they who stand in the presence of a man of virtue and station are liable. They may speak when it does not come to them to speak - this is called rashness. They may not speak when it comes to them to speak - this is called concealment. They may speak without looking at the countenance of their superior - this is called blindness."
 
7  季氏: 孔子曰:“君子有三戒:少之时,血气未定,戒之在色;及其壮也,血气方刚,戒之在鬭;及其老也,血气既衰,戒之在得。”
 Ji Shi: Confucius said, "There are three things which the superior man guards against. In youth, when the physical powers are not yet settled, he guards against lust. When he is strong and the physical powers are full of vigor, he guards against quarrelsomeness. When he is old, and the animal powers are decayed, he guards against covetousness."
 
8   季氏: 孔子曰:“君子有三畏:畏天命,畏大人,畏圣人之言。小人不知天命而不畏也,狎大人,侮圣人之言。”
 Ji Shi: Confucius said, "There are three things of which the superior man stands in awe. He stands in awe of the ordinances of Heaven. He stands in awe of great men. He stands in awe of the words of sages. The mean man does not know the ordinances of Heaven, and consequently does not stand in awe of them. He is disrespectful to great men. He makes sport of the words of sages."
 
9  季氏: 孔子曰:“生而知之者,上也;学而知之者,次也;困而学之,又其次也;困而不学,民斯为下矣。”
 Ji Shi: Confucius said, "Those who are born with the possession of knowledge are the highest class of men. Those who learn, and so, readily, get possession of knowledge, are the next. Those who are dull and stupid, and yet compass the learning, are another class next to these. As to those who are dull and stupid and yet do not learn - they are the lowest of the people."
 
10  季氏: 孔子曰:“君子有九思:视思明,听思聪,色思温,貌思恭,言思忠,事思敬,疑思问,忿思难,见得思义。”
 Ji Shi: Confucius said, "The superior man has nine things which are subjects with him of thoughtful consideration. In regard to the use of his eyes, he is anxious to see clearly. In regard to the use of his ears, he is anxious to hear distinctly. In regard to his countenance, he is anxious that it should be benign. In regard to his demeanor, he is anxious that it should be respectful. In regard to his speech, he is anxious that it should be sincere. In regard to his doing of business, he is anxious that it should be reverently careful. In regard to what he doubts about, he is anxious to question others. When he is angry, he thinks of the difficulties (his anger may involve him in). When he sees gain to be got, he thinks of righteousness."
 
11  季氏: 孔子曰:“见善如不及,见不善如探汤。吾见其人矣,吾闻其语矣。隐居以求其志,行义以达其道。吾闻其语矣,未见其人也。”
 Ji Shi: Confucius said, "Contemplating good, and pursuing it, as if they could not reach it; contemplating evil and shrinking from it, as they would from thrusting the hand into boiling water - I have seen such men, as I have heard such words. Living in retirement to study their aims, and practicing righteousness to carry out their principles - I have heard these words, but I have not seen such men."
 
12  季氏: 齐景公有马千驷,死之日,民无德而称焉。伯夷叔齐饿于首阳之下,民到于今称之。其斯之谓与?
 Ji Shi: The Duke Jing of Qi had a thousand teams, each of four horses, but on the day of his death, the people did not praise him for a single virtue. Bo Yi and Shu Qi died of hunger at the foot of the Shou Yang mountain, and the people, down to the present time, praise them. Is not that saying illustrated by this?
 
13  季氏: 陈亢问于伯鱼曰:“子亦有异闻乎?”对曰:“未也。尝独立,鲤趋而过庭。曰:‘学诗乎?’对曰:‘未也。’‘不学诗,无以言。’鲤退而学诗。他日又独立,鲤趋而过庭。曰:‘学礼乎?’对曰:‘未也。’‘不学礼,无以立。’鲤退而学礼。闻斯二者。”陈亢退而喜曰:“问一得三,闻诗,闻礼,又闻君子之远其子也。”
 Ji Shi: Chen Kang asked Bo Yu, saying, "Have you heard any lessons from your father different from what we have all heard?" Bo Yu replied, "No. He was standing alone once, when I passed below the hall with hasty steps, and said to me, 'Have you learned the Odes?' On my replying 'Not yet,' he added, 'If you do not learn the Odes, you will not be fit to converse with.' I retired and studied the Odes. Another day, he was in the same way standing alone, when I passed by below the hall with hasty steps, and said to me, 'Have you learned the rules of Propriety?' On my replying 'Not yet,' he added, 'If you do not learn the rules of Propriety, your character cannot be established.' I then retired, and learned the rules of Propriety. I have heard only these two things from him." Chen Kang retired, and, quite delighted, said, "I asked one thing, and I have got three things. I have heard about the Odes. I have heard about the rules of Propriety. I have also heard that the superior man maintains a distant reserve towards his son."
 
14  季氏: 邦君之妻,君称之曰夫人,夫人自称曰小童;邦人称之曰君夫人,称诸异邦曰寡小君;异邦人称之亦曰君夫人。
 Ji Shi: The wife of the prince of a state is called by him "fu ren". She calls herself "xiao tong". The people of the state call her "jun fu ren", and, to the people of other states, they call her "gua xiao jun". The people of other states also call her "jun fu ren".


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