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诸子百家 儒家 论语 卫灵公 (中英文)



诸子百家 儒家 论语 卫灵公  Sinology Confucianism, the Analects of Confucius

1  卫灵公: 卫灵公问陈于孔子。孔子对曰:“俎豆之事,则尝闻之矣;军旅之事,未之学也。”明日遂行。
 Wei Ling Gong: The duke Ling of Wei asked Confucius about tactics. Confucius replied, "I have heard all about sacrificial vessels, but I have not learned military matters." On this, he took his departure the next day.
2  卫灵公: 在陈绝粮,从者病,莫能兴。子路愠见曰:“君子亦有穷乎?”子曰:“君子固穷,小人穷斯滥矣。”
 Wei Ling Gong: When he was in Chen, their provisions were exhausted, and his followers became so ill that they were unable to rise. Zi Lu, with evident dissatisfaction, said, "Has the superior man likewise to endure in this way?" The Master said, "The superior man may indeed have to endure want, but the mean man, when he is in want, gives way to unbridled license."
3  卫灵公: 子曰:“赐也,女以予为多学而识之者与?”对曰:“然,非与?”曰:“非也,予一以贯之。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "Ci, you think, I suppose, that I am one who learns many things and keeps them in memory?" Zi Gong replied, "Yes - but perhaps it is not so?" "No," was the answer; "I seek a unity all pervading."
4  卫灵公: 子曰:“由!知德者鲜矣。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "You, those who know virtue are few."
5  卫灵公: 子曰:“无为而治者,其舜也与?夫何为哉,恭己正南面而已矣。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "May not Shun be instanced as having governed efficiently without exertion? What did he do? He did nothing but gravely and reverently occupy his royal seat."
6   卫灵公: 子张问行。子曰:“言忠信,行笃敬,虽蛮貊之邦行矣;言不忠信,行不笃敬,虽州里行乎哉?立,则见其参于前也;在舆,则见其倚于衡也。夫然后行。”子张书诸绅。
 Wei Ling Gong: Zi Zhang asked how a man should conduct himself, so as to be everywhere appreciated. The Master said, "Let his words be sincere and truthful and his actions honorable and careful - such conduct may be practiced among the rude tribes of the South or the North. If his words be not sincere and truthful, and his actions not honorable and careful, will he, with such conduct, be appreciated, even in his neighborhood? When he is standing, let him see those two things, as it were, fronting him. When he is in a carriage, let him see them attached to the yoke. Then may he subsequently carry them into practice."Zi Zhang wrote these counsels on the end of his sash.
7  卫灵公: 子曰:“直哉史鱼!邦有道,如矢;邦无道,如矢。”君子哉蘧伯玉!邦有道,则仕;邦无道,则可卷而怀之。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "Truly straightforward was the historiographer Yu. When good government prevailed in his state, he was like an arrow. When bad government prevailed, he was like an arrow. A superior man indeed is Qu Bo Yu! When good government prevails in his state, he is to be found in office. When bad government prevails, he can roll his principles up, and keep them in his breast."
8  卫灵公: 子曰:“可与言而不与之言,失人;不可与言而与之言,失言。知者不失人,亦不失言。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "When a man may be spoken with, not to speak to him is to err in reference to the man. When a man may not be spoken with, to speak to him is to err in reference to our words. The wise err neither in regard to their man nor to their words."
9  卫灵公: 子曰:“志士仁人,无求生以害仁,有杀身以成仁。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "The determined scholar and the man of virtue will not seek to live at the expense of injuring their virtue. They will even sacrifice their lives to preserve their virtue complete."
10   卫灵公: 子贡问为仁。子曰:“工欲善其事,必先利其器。居是邦也,事其大夫之贤者,友其士之仁者。”
 Wei Ling Gong: Zi Gong asked about the practice of virtue. The Master said, "The mechanic, who wishes to do his work well, must first sharpen his tools. When you are living in any state, take service with the most worthy among its great officers, and make friends of the most virtuous among its scholars."
11  卫灵公: 颜渊问为邦。子曰:“行夏之时,乘殷之辂,服周之冕,乐则韶舞。放郑声,远佞人。郑声淫,佞人殆。”
 Wei Ling Gong: Yan Yuan asked how the government of a country should be administered. The Master said, "Follow the seasons of Xia. Ride in the state carriage of Yin. Wear the ceremonial cap of Zhou. Let the music be the Shao with its pantomimes. Banish the songs of Zheng, and keep far from specious talkers. The songs of Zheng are licentious; specious talkers are dangerous."
12  卫灵公: 子曰:“人无远虑,必有近忧。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "If a man take no thought about what is distant, he will find sorrow near at hand."
13   卫灵公: 子曰:“已矣乎!吾未见好德如好色者也。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "It is all over! I have not seen one who loves virtue as he loves beauty."
14  卫灵公: 子曰:“臧文仲其窃位者与?知柳下惠之贤,而不与立也。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "Was not Zang Wen like one who had stolen his situation? He knew the virtue and the talents of Hui of Liu Xia, and yet did not procure that he should stand with him in court."
15  卫灵公: 子曰:“躬自厚而薄责于人,则远怨矣。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "He who requires much from himself and little from others, will keep himself from being the object of resentment."
16  卫灵公: 子曰:“不曰‘如之何如之何’者,吾末如之何也已矣。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "When a man is not in the habit of saying, 'What shall I think of this? What shall I think of this?' I can indeed do nothing with him!"
17  卫灵公: 子曰:“群居终日,言不及义,好行小慧,难矣哉!”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "When a number of people are together, for a whole day, without their conversation turning on righteousness, and when they are fond of carrying out the suggestions of a small shrewdness; theirs is indeed a hard case."
18  卫灵公: 子曰:“君子义以为质,礼以行之,孙以出之,信以成之。君子哉!”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "The superior man in everything considers righteousness to be essential. He performs it according to the rules of propriety. He brings it forth in humility. He completes it with sincerity. This is indeed a superior man."
19  卫灵公: 子曰:“君子病无能焉,不病人之不己知也。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "The superior man is distressed by his want of ability. He is not distressed by men's not knowing him."
20   卫灵公: 子曰:“君子疾没世而名不称焉。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "The superior man dislikes the thought of his name not being mentioned after his death."
21  卫灵公: 子曰:“君子求诸己,小人求诸人。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "What the superior man seeks, is in himself. What the mean man seeks, is in others."
22  卫灵公: 子曰:“君子矜而不争,群而不党。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "The superior man is dignified, but does not wrangle. He is sociable, but not a partisan."
23  卫灵公: 子曰:“君子不以言举人,不以人废言。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "The superior man does not promote a man simply on account of his words, nor does he put aside good words because of the man."
24   卫灵公: 子贡问曰:“有一言而可以终身行之者乎?”子曰:“其恕乎!己所不欲,勿施于人。”
 Wei Ling Gong: Zi Gong asked, saying, "Is there one word which may serve as a rule of practice for all one's life?" The Master said, "Is not RECIPROCITY such a word? What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others."
25  卫灵公: 子曰:“吾之于人也,谁毁谁誉?如有所誉者,其有所试矣。斯民也,三代之所以直道而行也。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "In my dealings with men, whose evil do I blame, whose goodness do I praise, beyond what is proper? If I do sometimes exceed in praise, there must be ground for it in my examination of the individual. This people supplied the ground why the three dynasties pursued the path of straightforwardness."
26   卫灵公: 子曰:“吾犹及史之阙文也,有马者借人乘之。今亡矣夫!”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "Even in my early days, a historiographer would leave a blank in his text, and he who had a horse would lend him to another to ride. Now, alas! there are no such things."
27  卫灵公: 子曰:“巧言乱德,小不忍则乱大谋。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "Specious words confound virtue. Want of forbearance in small matters confounds great plans."
28  卫灵公: 子曰:“众恶之,必察焉;众好之,必察焉。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "When the multitude hate a man, it is necessary to examine into the case. When the multitude like a man, it is necessary to examine into the case."
29  卫灵公: 子曰:“人能弘道,非道弘人。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "A man can enlarge the principles which he follows; those principles do not enlarge the man."
30  卫灵公: 子曰:“过而不改,是谓过矣。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "To have faults and not to reform them - this, indeed, should be pronounced having faults."
31  卫灵公: 子曰:“吾尝终日不食,终夜不寝,以思,无益,不如学也。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "I have been the whole day without eating, and the whole night without sleeping; occupied with thinking. It was of no use. The better plan is to learn."
32  卫灵公: 子曰:“君子谋道不谋食。耕也,馁在其中矣;学也,禄在其中矣。君子忧道不忧贫。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "The object of the superior man is truth. Food is not his object. There is plowing - even in that there is sometimes want. So with learning - emolument may be found in it. The superior man is anxious lest he should not get truth; he is not anxious lest poverty should come upon him."
33  卫灵公: 子曰:“知及之,仁不能守之;虽得之,必失之。知及之,仁能守之。不庄以莅之,则民不敬。知及之,仁能守之,庄以莅之。动之不以礼,未善也。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "When a man's knowledge is sufficient to attain, and his virtue is not sufficient to enable him to hold, whatever he may have gained, he will lose again. When his knowledge is sufficient to attain, and he has virtue enough to hold fast, if he cannot govern with dignity, the people will not respect him. When his knowledge is sufficient to attain, and he has virtue enough to hold fast; when he governs also with dignity, yet if he try to move the people contrary to the rules of propriety - full excellence is not reached."
34  卫灵公: 子曰:“君子不可小知,而可大受也;小人不可大受,而可小知也。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "The superior man cannot be known in little matters; but he may be intrusted with great concerns. The small man may not be intrusted with great concerns, but he may be known in little matters."
35  卫灵公: 子曰:“民之于仁也,甚于水火。水火,吾见蹈而死者矣,未见蹈仁而死者也。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "Virtue is more to man than either water or fire. I have seen men die from treading on water and fire, but I have never seen a man die from treading the course of virtue."
36  卫灵公: 子曰:“当仁不让于师。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "Let every man consider virtue as what devolves on himself. He may not yield the performance of it even to his teacher."
37  卫灵公: 子曰:“君子贞而不谅。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "The superior man is correctly firm, and not firm merely."
38  卫灵公: 子曰:“事君,敬其事而后其食。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "A minister, in serving his prince, reverently discharges his duties, and makes his emolument a secondary consideration."
39  卫灵公: 子曰:“有教无类。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "In teaching there should be no distinction of classes."
40   卫灵公: 子曰:“道不同,不相为谋。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "Those whose courses are different cannot lay plans for one another."
41  卫灵公: 子曰:“辞达而已矣。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The Master said, "In language it is simply required that it convey the meaning."
42  卫灵公: 师冕见,及阶,子曰:“阶也。”及席,子曰:“席也。”皆坐,子告之曰:“某在斯,某在斯。”师冕出。子张问曰:“与师言之道与?”子曰:“然。固相师之道也。”
 Wei Ling Gong: The music master, Mian, having called upon him, when they came to the steps, the Master said, "Here are the steps." When they came to the mat for the guest to sit upon, he said, "Here is the mat." When all were seated, the Master informed him, saying, "So and so is here; so and so is here." The music master, Mian, having gone out, Zi Zhang asked, saying. "Is it the rule to tell those things to the music master?" The Master said, "Yes. This is certainly the rule for those who lead the blind."


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