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诸子百家 儒家 论语 宪问 (中英文)



诸子百家 儒家 论语 宪问 Sinology Confucianism, the Analects of Confucius

1   宪问: 宪问耻。子曰:“邦有道,谷;邦无道,谷,耻也。”“克、伐、怨、欲不行焉,可以为仁矣?”子曰:“可以为难矣,仁则吾不知也。”
 Xian Wen: Xian asked what was shameful. The Master said, "When good government prevails in a state, to be thinking only of salary; and, when bad government prevails, to be thinking, in the same way, only of salary - this is shameful." "When the love of superiority, boasting, resentments, and covetousness are repressed, this may be deemed perfect virtue." The Master said, "This may be regarded as the achievement of what is difficult. But I do not know that it is to be deemed perfect virtue."
2  宪问: 子曰:“士而怀居,不足以为士矣。”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "The scholar who cherishes the love of comfort is not fit to be deemed a scholar."
3  宪问: 子曰:“邦有道,危言危行;邦无道,危行言孙。”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "When good government prevails in a state, language may be lofty and bold, and actions the same. When bad government prevails, the actions may be lofty and bold, but the language may be with some reserve."
4  宪问: 子曰:“有德者,必有言。有言者,不必有德。仁者,必有勇。勇者,不必有仁。”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "The virtuous will be sure to speak correctly, but those whose speech is good may not always be virtuous. Men of principle are sure to be bold, but those who are bold may not always be men of principle."
5   宪问: 南宫适问于孔子曰:“羿善射,奡荡舟,俱不得其死然;禹稷躬稼,而有天下。”夫子不答,南宫适出。子曰:“君子哉若人!尚德哉若人!”
 Xian Wen: Nan Gong Shi, submitting an inquiry to Confucius, said, "Yi was skillful at archery, and Ao could move a boat along upon the land, but neither of them died a natural death. Yu and Ji personally wrought at the toils of husbandry, and they became possessors of the kingdom." The Master made no reply; but when Nan Gong Shi went out, he said, "A superior man indeed is this! An esteemer of virtue indeed is this!"
6  宪问: 子曰:“君子而不仁者有矣夫,未有小人而仁者也。”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "Superior men, and yet not always virtuous, there have been, alas! But there never has been a mean man, and, at the same time, virtuous."
7  宪问: 子曰:“爱之,能勿劳乎?忠焉,能勿诲乎?”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "Can there be love which does not lead to strictness with its object? Can there be loyalty which does not lead to the instruction of its object?"
8  宪问: 子曰:“为命:裨谌草创之,世叔讨论之,行人子羽修饰之,东里子产润色之。”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "In preparing the governmental notifications, Pi Shen first made the rough draft; Shi Shu examined and discussed its contents; Zi Yu, the manager of foreign intercourse, then polished the style; and, finally, Zi Chan of Dong Li gave it the proper elegance and finish."
9  宪问: 或问子产。子曰:“惠人也。”问子西。曰:“彼哉!彼哉!”问管仲。曰:“人也。夺伯氏骈邑三百,饭疏食,没齿,无怨言。”
 Xian Wen: Some one asked about Zi Chan. The Master said, "He was a kind man." He asked about Zi Xi. The Master said, "That man! That man!" He asked about Guan Zhong. "For him," said the Master, "the city of Pian, with three hundred families, was taken from the chief of the Bo family, who did not utter a murmuring word, though, to the end of his life, he had only coarse rice to eat."
10  宪问: 子曰:“贫而无怨难,富而无骄易。”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "To be poor without murmuring is difficult. To be rich without being proud is easy."
11  宪问: 子曰:“孟公绰,为赵魏老则优,不可以为滕薛大夫。”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "Meng Gong Chuo is more than fit to be chief officer in the families of Zhao and Wei, but he is not fit to be great officer to either of the States Teng or Xue."
12  宪问: 子路问成人。子曰:“若臧武仲之知,公绰之不欲,卞庄子之勇,冉求之艺,文之以礼乐,亦可以为成人矣。”曰:“今之成人者何必然?见利思义,见危授命,久要不忘平生之言,亦可以为成人矣。”
 Xian Wen: Zi Lu asked what constituted a COMPLETE man. The Master said, "Suppose a man with the knowledge of Zang Wu Zhong, the freedom from covetousness of Gong Chuo, the bravery of Zhuang of Bian, and the varied talents of Ran Qiu; add to these the accomplishments of the rules of propriety and music - such a one might be reckoned a COMPLETE man." He then added, "But what is the necessity for a complete man of the present day to have all these things? The man, who in the view of gain, thinks of righteousness; who in the view of danger is prepared to give up his life; and who does not forget an old agreement however far back it extends - such a man may be reckoned a COMPLETE man."
13  宪问: 子问公叔文子于公明贾曰:“信乎夫子不言、不笑、不取乎?”公明贾对曰:“以告者过也。夫子时然后言,人不厌其言;乐然后笑,人不厌其笑;义然后取,人不厌其取。”子曰:“其然,岂其然乎?”
 Xian Wen: The Master asked Gong Ming Jia about Gong Ming Wen, saying, "Is it true that your master speaks not, laughs not, and takes not?" Gong Ming Jia replied, "This has arisen from the reporters going beyond the truth. My master speaks when it is the time to speak, and so men do not get tired of his speaking. He laughs when there is occasion to be joyful, and so men do not get tired of his laughing. He takes when it is consistent with righteousness to do so, and so men do not get tired of his taking." The Master said, "So! But is it so with him?"
14  宪问: 子曰:“臧武仲以防求为后于鲁,虽曰不要君,吾不信也。”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "Zang Wu Zhong, keeping possession of Fang, asked of the duke of Lu to appoint a successor to him in his family. Although it may be said that he was not using force with his sovereign, I believe he was."
15  宪问: 子曰:“晋文公谲而不正,齐桓公正而不谲。”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "The duke Wen of Jin was crafty and not upright. The duke Huan of Qi was upright and not crafty."
16  宪问: 子路曰:“桓公杀公子纠,召忽死之,管仲不死。”曰:“未仁乎?”子曰:“桓公九合诸侯,不以兵车,管仲之力也。如其仁!如其仁!”
 Xian Wen: Zi Lu said, "The duke Huan caused his brother Jiu to be killed, when Zhao Hu died with his master, but Guan Zhong did not die. May not I say that he was wanting in virtue?" The Master said, "The Duke Huan assembled all the princes together, and that not with weapons of war and chariots - it was all through the influence of Guan Zhong. Whose beneficence was like his? Whose beneficence was like his?"
17  宪问: 子贡曰:“管仲非仁者与?桓公杀公子纠,不能死,又相之。”子曰:“管仲相桓公,霸诸侯,一匡天下,民到于今受其赐。微管仲,吾其被发左衽矣。岂若匹夫匹妇之为谅也,自经于沟渎,而莫之知也。”
 Xian Wen: Zi Gong said, "Guan Zhong, I apprehend, was wanting in virtue. When the Duke Huan caused his brother Jiu to be killed, Guan Zhong was not able to die with him. Moreover, he became prime minister to Huan." The Master said, "Guan Zhong acted as prime minister to the duke Huan, made him leader of all the princes, and united and rectified the whole kingdom. Down to the present day, the people enjoy the gifts which he conferred. But for Guan Zhong, we should now be wearing our hair unbound, and the lappets of our coats buttoning on the left side. Will you require from him the small fidelity of common men and common women, who would commit suicide in a stream or ditch, no one knowing anything about them?"
18  宪问: 公叔文子之臣大夫僎,与文子同升诸公。子闻之曰:“可以为文矣。”
 Xian Wen: The great officer, Xian, who had been family minister to Gong Ming Wen, ascended to the prince's court in company with Wen. The Master, having heard of it, said, "He deserved to be considered WEN (the accomplished)."
19  宪问: 子言卫灵公之无道也,康子曰:“夫如是,奚而不丧?”孔子曰:“仲叔圉治宾客,祝鮀治宗庙,王孙贾治军旅。夫如是,奚其丧?”
 Xian Wen: The Master was speaking about the unprincipled course of the duke Ling of Wei, when Qi Kang said, "Since he is of such a character, how is it he does not lose his state?" Confucius said, "The Zhong Shu Yu has the superintendence of his guests and of strangers; the litanist, Tuo, has the management of his ancestral temple; and Wang Sun Jia has the direction of the army and forces - with such officers as these, how should he lose his state?"
20  宪问: 子曰:“其言之不怍,则为之也难。”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "He who speaks without modesty will find it difficult to make his words good."
21  宪问: 陈成子弑简公。孔子沐浴而朝,告于哀公曰:“陈恒弑其君,请讨之。”公曰:“告夫三子!”孔子曰:“以吾从大夫之后,不敢不告也。君曰‘告夫三子’者。”之三子告,不可。孔子曰:“以吾从大夫之后,不敢不告也。”
 Xian Wen: Chen Cheng murdered the duke Jian of Qi. Confucius bathed, went to court and informed the duke Ai, saying, "Chen Heng has slain his sovereign. I beg that you will undertake to punish him." The duke said, "Inform the chiefs of the three families of it." Confucius retired, and said, "Following in the rear of the great officers, I did not dare not to represent such a matter, and my prince says, 'Inform the chiefs of the three families of it.'" He went to the chiefs, and informed them, but they would not act. Confucius then said, "Following in the rear of the great officers, I did not dare not to represent such a matter."
22  宪问: 子路问事君。子曰:“勿欺也,而犯之。”
 Xian Wen: Zi Lu asked how a ruler should be served. The Master said, "Do not impose on him, and, moreover, withstand him to his face."
23  宪问: 子曰:“君子上达,小人下达。”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "The progress of the superior man is upwards; the progress of the mean man is downwards."
24  宪问: 子曰:“古之学者为己,今之学者为人。”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "In ancient times, men learned with a view to their own improvement. Nowadays, men learn with a view to the approbation of others."
25  宪问: 蘧伯玉使人于孔子。孔子与之坐而问焉,曰:“夫子何为?”对曰:“夫子欲寡其过而未能也。”使者出。子曰:“使乎!使乎!”
 Xian Wen: Qu Bo sent a messenger with friendly inquiries to Confucius. Confucius sat with him, and questioned him. "What," said he! "is your master engaged in?" The messenger replied, "My master is anxious to make his faults few, but he has not yet succeeded." He then went out, and the Master said, "A messenger indeed! A messenger indeed!"
26  宪问: 子曰:“不在其位,不谋其政。”曾子曰:“君子思不出其位。”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "He who is not in any particular office has nothing to do with plans for the administration of its duties." The philosopher Zeng said, "The superior man, in his thoughts, does not go out of his place."
27  宪问: 子曰:“君子耻其言而过其行。”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "The superior man is modest in his speech, but exceeds in his actions."
28  宪问: 子曰:“君子道者三,我无能焉:仁者不忧,知者不惑,勇者不惧。”子贡曰:“夫子自道也。”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "The way of the superior man is threefold, but I am not equal to it. Virtuous, he is free from anxieties; wise, he is free from perplexities; bold, he is free from fear." Zi Gong said, "Master, that is what you yourself say."
29  宪问: 子贡方人。子曰:“赐也贤乎哉?夫我则不暇。”
 Xian Wen: Zi Gong was in the habit of comparing men together. The Master said, "Ci must have reached a high pitch of excellence! Now, I have not leisure for this."
30   宪问: 子曰:“不患人之不己知,患其不能也。”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "I will not be concerned at men's not knowing me; I will be concerned at my own want of ability."
31  宪问: 子曰:“不逆诈,不亿不信。抑亦先觉者,是贤乎!”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "He who does not anticipate attempts to deceive him, nor think beforehand of his not being believed, and yet apprehends these things readily (when they occur) - is he not a man of superior worth?"
32  宪问: 微生亩谓孔子曰:“丘何为是栖栖者与?无乃为佞乎?”孔子曰:“非敢为佞也,疾固也。”
 Xian Wen: Wei Sheng Mu said to Confucius, "Qiu, how is it that you keep roosting about? Is it not that you are an insinuating talker? Confucius said, "I do not dare to play the part of such a talker, but I hate obstinacy."
33  宪问: 子曰:“骥不称其力,称其德也。”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "A horse is called a Ji, not because of its strength, but because of its other good qualities."
34  宪问: 或曰:“以德报怨,何如?”子曰:“何以报德?以直报怨,以德报德。”
 Xian Wen: Some one said, "What do you say concerning the principle that injury should be recompensed with kindness?" The Master said, "With what then will you recompense kindness? Recompense injury with justice, and recompense kindness with kindness."
35  宪问: 子曰:“莫我知也夫!”子贡曰:“何为其莫知子也?”子曰:“不怨天,不尤人。下学而上达。知我者,其天乎!”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "Alas! there is no one that knows me." Zi Gong said, "What do you mean by thus saying - that no one knows you?" The Master replied, "I do not murmur against Heaven. I do not grumble against men. My studies lie low, and my penetration rises high. But there is Heaven - that knows me!"
36   宪问: 公伯寮诉子路于季孙。子服景伯以告,曰:“夫子固有惑志于公伯寮,吾力犹能肆诸市朝。”子曰:“道之将行也与?命也。道之将废也与?命也。公伯寮其如命何!”
 Xian Wen: The Gong Bo Liao, having slandered Zi Lu to Ji Sun, Zi Fu Jing Bo informed Confucius of it, saying, "Our master is certainly being led astray by the Gong Bo Liao, but I have still power enough left to cut Liao off, and expose his corpse in the market and in the court." The Master said, "If my principles are to advance, it is so ordered. If they are to fall to the ground, it is so ordered. What can the Gong Bo Liao do where such ordering is concerned?"
37  宪问: 子曰:“贤者辟世,其次辟地,其次辟色,其次辟言。”子曰:“作者七人矣。”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "Some men of worth retire from the world. Some retire from particular states. Some retire because of disrespectful looks. Some retire because of contradictory language." The Master said, "Those who have done this are seven men."
38  宪问: 子路宿于石门。晨门曰:“奚自?”子路曰:“自孔氏。”曰:“是知其不可而为之者与?”
 Xian Wen: Zi Lu happening to pass the night in Shi Men, the gatekeeper said to him, "Whom do you come from?" Zi Lu said, "From Mr. Kong." "It is he, is it not?" said the other, "who knows the impracticable nature of the times and yet will be doing in them."
39   宪问: 子击磬于卫。有荷蒉而过孔氏之门者,曰:“有心哉!击磬乎!”既而曰:“鄙哉!硜硜乎!莫己知也,斯己而已矣。深则厉,浅则揭。”子曰:“果哉!末之难矣。”
 Xian Wen: The Master was playing, one day, on a musical stone in Wei, when a man, carrying a straw basket, passed door of the house where Confucius was, and said, "His heart is full who so beats the musical stone." A little while after, he added, "How contemptible is the one-ideaed obstinacy those sounds display! When one is taken no notice of, he has simply at once to give over his wish for public employment. 'Deep water must be crossed with the clothes on; shallow water may be crossed with the clothes held up.'" The Master said, "How determined is he in his purpose! But this is not difficult!"
40  宪问: 子张曰:“《书》云:‘高宗谅阴,三年不言。’何谓也?”子曰:“何必高宗,古之人皆然。君薨,百官总己以听于冢宰,三年。”
 Xian Wen: Zi Zhang said, "What is meant when the Shu says that Gao Zong, while observing the usual imperial mourning, was for three years without speaking?" The Master said, "Why must Gao Zong be referred to as an example of this? The ancients all did so. When the sovereign died, the officers all attended to their several duties, taking instructions from the prime minister for three years."
41  宪问: 子曰:“上好礼,则民易使也。”
 Xian Wen: The Master said, "When rulers love to observe the rules of propriety, the people respond readily to the calls on them for service."
42  宪问: 子路问君子。子曰:“修己以敬。”曰:“如斯而已乎?”曰:“修己以安人。”曰:“如斯而已乎?”曰:“修己以安百姓。修己以安百姓,尧舜其犹病诸!”
 Xian Wen: Zi Lu asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "The cultivation of himself in reverential carefulness." "And is this all?" said Zi Lu. "He cultivates himself so as to give rest to others," was the reply. "And is this all?" again asked Zi Lu. The Master said, "He cultivates himself so as to give rest to all the people. He cultivates himself so as to give rest to all the people - even Yao and Shun were still solicitous about this."
43  宪问: 原壤夷俟。子曰:“幼而不孙弟,长而无述焉,老而不死,是为贼!”以杖叩其胫。
 Xian Wen: Yuan Rang was squatting on his heels, and so waited the approach of the Master, who said to him, "In youth not humble as befits a junior; in manhood, doing nothing worthy of being handed down; and living on to old age - this is to be a pest." With this he hit him on the shank with his staff.
44  宪问: 阙党童子将命。或问之曰:“益者与?”子曰:“吾见其居于位也,见其与先生并行也。非求益者也,欲速成者也。”
 Xian Wen: A youth of the village of Que was employed by Confucius to carry the messages between him and his visitors. Some one asked about him, saying, "I suppose he has made great progress." The Master said, "I observe that he is fond of occupying the seat of a full-grown man; I observe that he walks shoulder to shoulder with his elders. He is not one who is seeking to make progress in learning. He wishes quickly to become a man."


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