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诸子百家 儒家 论语 颜渊 (中英文)

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诸子百家 儒家 论语 颜渊 Sinology Confucianism, the Analects of Confucius


1   颜渊: 颜渊问仁。子曰:“克己复礼为仁。一日克己复礼,天下归仁焉。为仁由己,而由人乎哉?”颜渊曰:“请问其目。”子曰:“非礼勿视,非礼勿听,非礼勿言,非礼勿动。”颜渊曰:“回虽不敏,请事斯语矣。”
 Yan Yuan: Yan Yuan asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "To subdue one's self and return to propriety, is perfect virtue. If a man can for one day subdue himself and return to propriety, all under heaven will ascribe perfect virtue to him. Is the practice of perfect virtue from a man himself, or is it from others?" Yan Yuan said, "I beg to ask the steps of that process." The Master replied, "Look not at what is contrary to propriety; listen not to what is contrary to propriety; speak not what is contrary to propriety; make no movement which is contrary to propriety." Yan Yuan then said, "Though I am deficient in intelligence and vigor, I will make it my business to practice this lesson."
 
2   颜渊: 仲弓问仁。子曰:“出门如见大宾,使民如承大祭。己所不欲,勿施于人。在邦无怨,在家无怨。”仲弓曰:“雍虽不敏,请事斯语矣。”
 Yan Yuan: Zhong Gong asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "It is, when you go abroad, to behave to every one as if you were receiving a great guest; to employ the people as if you were assisting at a great sacrifice; not to do to others as you would not wish done to yourself; to have no murmuring against you in the country, and none in the family." Zhong Gong said, "Though I am deficient in intelligence and vigor, I will make it my business to practice this lesson."
 
3   颜渊: 司马牛问仁。子曰:“仁者其言也訒。”曰:“其言也訒,斯谓之仁已乎?”子曰:“为之难,言之得无訒乎?”
 Yan Yuan: Si Ma Niu asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "The man of perfect virtue is cautious and slow in his speech." "Cautious and slow in his speech!" said Niu, "is this what is meant by perfect virtue?" The Master said, "When a man feels the difficulty of doing, can he be other than cautious and slow in speaking?"
 
4   颜渊: 司马牛问君子。子曰:“君子不忧不惧。”曰:“不忧不惧,斯谓之君子已乎?”子曰:“内省不疚,夫何忧何惧?”
 Yan Yuan: Si Ma Niu asked about the superior man. The Master said, "The superior man has neither anxiety nor fear." "Being without anxiety or fear!" said Niu, "does this constitute what we call the superior man?" The Master said, "When internal examination discovers nothing wrong, what is there to be anxious about, what is there to fear?"
 
5  颜渊: 司马牛忧曰:“人皆有兄弟,我独亡。”子夏曰:“商闻之矣:死生有命,富贵在天。君子敬而无失,与人恭而有礼。四海之内,皆兄弟也。君子何患乎无兄弟也?”
 Yan Yuan: Si Ma Niu, full of anxiety, said, "Other men all have their brothers, I only have not." Zi Xia said to him, "There is the following saying which I have heard - 'Death and life have their determined appointment; riches and honors depend upon Heaven.' Let the superior man never fail reverentially to order his own conduct, and let him be respectful to others and observant of propriety - then all within the four seas will be his brothers. What has the superior man to do with being distressed because he has no brothers?"
 
6  颜渊: 子张问明。子曰:“浸润之谮,肤受之诉,不行焉。可谓明也已矣。浸润之谮肤受之诉不行焉,可谓远也已矣。”
 Yan Yuan: Zi Zhang asked what constituted intelligence. The Master said, "He with whom neither slander that gradually soaks into the mind, nor statements that startle like a wound in the flesh, are successful, may be called intelligent indeed. Yea, he with whom neither soaking slander, nor startling statements, are successful, may be called farseeing."
 
7  颜渊: 子贡问政。子曰:“足食。足兵。民信之矣。”子贡曰:“必不得已而去,于斯三者何先?”曰:“去兵。”子贡曰:“必不得已而去,于斯二者何先?”曰:“去食。自古皆有死,民无信不立。”
 Yan Yuan: Zi Gong asked about government. The Master said, "The requisites of government are that there be sufficiency of food, sufficiency of military equipment, and the confidence of the people in their ruler." Zi Gong said, "If it cannot be helped, and one of these must be dispensed with, which of the three should be foregone first?" "The military equipment," said the Master. Zi Gong again asked, "If it cannot be helped, and one of the remaining two must be dispensed with, which of them should be foregone?" The Master answered, "Part with the food. From of old, death has been the lot of an men; but if the people have no faith in their rulers, there is no standing for the state."
 
8  颜渊: 棘子成曰:“君子质而已矣,何以文为?”子贡曰:“惜乎!夫子之说,君子也。驷不及舌。文犹质也,质犹文也。虎豹之鞟,犹犬羊之鞟。”
 Yan Yuan: Ji Zi Cheng said, "In a superior man it is only the substantial qualities which are wanted; why should we seek for ornamental accomplishments?" Zi Gong said, "Alas! Your words, sir, show you to be a superior man, but four horses cannot overtake the tongue. Ornament is as substance; substance is as ornament. The hide of a tiger or a leopard stripped of its hair, is like the hide of a dog or a goat stripped of its hair."
 
9  颜渊: 哀公问于有若曰:“年饥,用不足,如之何?”有若对曰:“盍彻乎?”曰:“二,吾犹不足,如之何其彻也?”对曰:“百姓足,君孰与不足?百姓不足,君孰与足?”
 Yan Yuan: The duke Ai inquired of You Ruo, saying, "The year is one of scarcity, and the returns for expenditure are not sufficient - what is to be done?" You Ruo replied to him, "Why not simply tithe the people?" "With two tenths," said the duke, "I find it not enough - how could I do with that system of one tenth?" You Ruo answered, "If the people have plenty, their prince will not be left to want alone. If the people are in want, their prince cannot enjoy plenty alone."
 
10  颜渊: 子张问崇德、辨惑。子曰:“主忠信,徙义,崇德也。爱之欲其生,恶之欲其死。既欲其生,又欲其死,是惑也。‘诚不以富,亦祗以异。’”
 Yan Yuan: Zi Zhang having asked how virtue was to be exalted, and delusions to be discovered, the Master said, "Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles, and be moving continually to what is right - this is the way to exalt one's virtue. You love a man and wish him to live; you hate him and wish him to die. Having wished him to live, you also wish him to die. This is a case of delusion. 'It may not be on account of her being rich, yet you come to make a difference.'"
 
11  颜渊: 齐景公问政于孔子。孔子对曰:“君君,臣臣,父父,子子。”公曰:“善哉!信如君不君,臣不臣,父不父,子不子,虽有粟,吾得而食诸?”
 Yan Yuan: The duke Jing, of Qi, asked Confucius about government. Confucius replied, "There is government, when the prince is prince, and the minister is minister; when the father is father, and the son is son." "Good!" said the duke; "if, indeed, the prince be not prince, the not minister, the father not father, and the son not son, although I have my revenue, can I enjoy it?"
 
12   颜渊: 子曰:“片言可以折狱者,其由也与?”子路无宿诺。
 Yan Yuan: The Master said, "Ah! it is You, who could with half a word settle litigations!" Zi Lu never slept over a promise.
 
13  颜渊: 子曰:“听讼,吾犹人也,必也使无讼乎!”
 Yan Yuan: The Master said, "In hearing litigations, I am like any other body. What is necessary, however, is to cause the people to have no litigations."
 
14  颜渊: 子张问政。子曰:“居之无倦,行之以忠。”
 Yan Yuan: Zi Zhang asked about government. The Master said, "The art of governing is to keep its affairs before the mind without weariness, and to practice them with undeviating consistency."
 
15  颜渊: 子曰:“君子博学于文,约之以礼,亦可以弗畔矣夫!”
 Yan Yuan: The Master said, "By extensively studying all learning, and keeping himself under the restraint of the rules of propriety, one may thus likewise not err from what is right."
 
16  颜渊: 子曰:“君子成人之美,不成人之恶。小人反是。”
 Yan Yuan: The Master said, "The superior man seeks to perfect the admirable qualities of men, and does not seek to perfect their bad qualities. The mean man does the opposite of this."
 
17  颜渊: 季康子问政于孔子。孔子对曰:“政者,正也。子帅以正,孰敢不正?”
 Yan Yuan: Ji Kang asked Confucius about government. Confucius replied, "To govern means to rectify. If you lead on the people with correctness, who will dare not to be correct?"
 
18  颜渊: 季康子患盗,问于孔子。孔子对曰:“苟子之不欲,虽赏之不窃。”
 Yan Yuan: Ji Kang, distressed about the number of thieves in the state, inquired of Confucius how to do away with them. Confucius said, "If you, sir, were not covetous, although you should reward them to do it, they would not steal."
 
19  颜渊: 季康子问政于孔子曰:“如杀无道,以就有道,何如?”孔子对曰:“子为政,焉用杀?子欲善,而民善矣。君子之德风,小人之德草。草上之风,必偃。”
 Yan Yuan: Ji Kang asked Confucius about government, saying, "What do you say to killing the unprincipled for the good of the principled?" Confucius replied, "Sir, in carrying on your government, why should you use killing at all? Let your evinced desires be for what is good, and the people will be good. The relation between superiors and inferiors is like that between the wind and the grass. The grass must bend, when the wind blows across it."
 
20   颜渊: 子张问:“士何如斯可谓之达矣?”子曰:“何哉,尔所谓达者?”子张对曰:“在邦必闻,在家必闻。”子曰:“是闻也,非达也。夫达也者,质直而好义,察言而观色,虑以下人。在邦必达,在家必达。夫闻也者,色取仁而行违,居之不疑。在邦必闻,在家必闻。”
 Yan Yuan: Zi Zhang asked, "What must the officer be, who may be said to be distinguished?" The Master said, "What is it you call being distinguished?" Zi Zhang replied, "It is to be heard of through the state, to be heard of throughout his clan." The Master said, "That is notoriety, not distinction. Now the man of distinction is solid and straightforward, and loves righteousness. He examines people's words, and looks at their countenances. He is anxious to humble himself to others. Such a man will be distinguished in the country; he will be distinguished in his clan. As to the man of notoriety, he assumes the appearance of virtue, but his actions are opposed to it, and he rests in this character without any doubts about himself. Such a man will be heard of in the country; he will be heard of in the clan."
 
21  颜渊: 樊迟从游于舞雩之下,曰:“敢问崇德、修慝、辨惑。”子曰:“善哉问!先事后得,非崇德与?攻其恶,无攻人之恶,非修慝与?一朝之忿,忘其身,以及其亲,非惑与?”
 Yan Yuan: Fan Chi rambling with the Master under the trees about the rain altars, said, "I venture to ask how to exalt virtue, to correct cherished evil, and to discover delusions." The Master said, "Truly a good question! If doing what is to be done be made the first business, and success a secondary consideration - is not this the way to exalt virtue? To assail one's own wickedness and not assail that of others - is not this the way to correct cherished evil? For a morning's anger to disregard one's own life, and involve that of his parents - is not this a case of delusion?"
 
22   颜渊: 樊迟问仁。子曰:“爱人。”问知。子曰:“知人。”樊迟未达。子曰:“举直错诸枉,能使枉者直。”樊迟退,见子夏。曰:“乡也吾见于夫子而问知,子曰,‘举直错诸枉,能使枉者直’,何谓也?”子夏曰:“富哉言乎!舜有天下,选于众,举皋陶,不仁者远矣。汤有天下,选于众,举伊尹,不仁者远矣。”
 Yan Yuan: Fan Chi asked about benevolence. The Master said, "It is to love all men." He asked about knowledge. The Master said, "It is to know all men." Fan Chi did not immediately understand these answers. The Master said, "Employ the upright and put aside all the crooked; in this way the crooked can be made to be upright." Fan Chi retired, and, seeing Zi Xia, he said to him, "A Little while ago, I had an interview with our Master, and asked him about knowledge. He said, 'Employ the upright, and put aside all the crooked; in this way, the crooked will be made to be upright.' What did he mean?" Zi Xia said, "Truly rich is his saying! Shun, being in possession of the kingdom, selected from among all the people, and employed Gao Yao, on which all who were devoid of virtue disappeared. Tang, being in possession of the kingdom, selected from among all the people, and employed Yi Yin, and an who were devoid of virtue disappeared."
 
23  颜渊: 子贡问友。子曰:“忠告而善道之,不可则止,无自辱焉。”
 Yan Yuan: Zi Gong asked about friendship. The Master said, "Faithfully admonish your friend, and skillfully lead him on. If you find him impracticable, stop. Do not disgrace yourself."
 
24  颜渊: 曾子曰:“君子以文会友,以友辅仁。”
 Yan Yuan: The philosopher Zeng said, "The superior man on grounds of culture meets with his friends, and by friendship helps his virtue."

 


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