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商界演讲:Novell公司总裁 埃里克

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Business Speeches: Novell Company President Eric Schmidt 1997.11.19


The New Face of Networking Transcript

When the folks from Softbank asked how long it would take to put together a network of 250,000 users, five million messages, we replied, "A few days, maybe a week." And we did it, with the help of Compaq. I'm very, very proud of that. We made a mistake, though; it's, in fact, 1.85 million messages a day because of what you guys are doing, which I think is incredible.

What I want to do in this hour is take you through all the things that you can do with networking, the promise of networking, and some of the exciting things that are going on in the industry.

Today, Novell has a much more sharpened focus. We're trying to balance new technologies with our existing customer commitments. We're managing the complexity of applications -- all the kinds of problems that everybody here deals with, and we're planning with our customers their long-term information technology strategy.

So we have a renewed focus at Novell to deliver the kind of technologies that people need to run their networks. That's what we're all about.

My talk is actually about the new face of the network. Now, the new face of the network is not an interface, and it's not even a single face. The new face of networking has a human face, and it has as many faces as there are users on the network today.

When we take a look at everything we've done in the last 15 years, we've been governed by Moore's Law, and it's been a good law for all of us. It's the thing that created COMDEX and made this as fun as it has been. And we're now moving to a situation where we're governing much more by the speed of light. But I think that's not the ultimate constraint. I think it's the speed of people's minds. I think it's the ability of organizations to deal with the complexity and creativity that networks bring to them; that solving that problem turns out to be the most important thing we can do; that we need adaptive systems that can work with this set of problems.

The industry that we're in is young. It moves fast. We deal with time compression and globalization; we're very proud of what we have accomplished. But what we're seeing now is a declining significance of Moore's Law, and an increasing significance of the problems that I'm going to highlight. They ultimately become the barrier to progress. In other words, the scarcityhere is of time: Time of the person, time of the customer, time to change these new models; that's the opportunity that's in front of us.

Now, how big is this? Well, there's a lot of interesting statistics. The size of the web: there are roughly 71.3 million web users, according to IDC right now, and 130 million are expected by the year 2000. The compound growth rate of these things yield tremendous numbers. We've often said that at the current growth rate, every human on the planet would have their own web site by the year 2004. But if you look at the number of trade shows we have to go to, every human will have their own trade show by the year 2004. It just goes on and on and on.

And there's an underlying transition here from static to dynamic, and that shift is something that underpins almost everything we do. It's not obvious until you begin to think about its implications, because the Internet and networking technology are bringing forth a whole new set of mediums.

There's a number of examples: creative pattern matching, or what computers can do that we really couldn't do before. It can watch what you do. It can figure out what you want. And it can suggest the next thing.

I don't know if you've noticed, but Amazon.com -- one of the services that I use on the net -- now remembers your books and then makes a suggestion, based on a perception algorithm, for books that you want to buy. When was the last time your bookstore did that for you?

There are lots of examples of this. American Airlines has a program that, for a certain category of customers who buy through electronic means, can give you instantaneous price updates so that you can absolutely know the marginal price of that middle seat that you didn't want anyway.

We see computers being used not just as substitutes for the physical world that we're used to, but in a very different way. And this whole thing is governed by a set of laws around network effects.

If you look back, we can see network effects that were a surprise to us 20 years ago. Most of us spend much of our time traveling around and dealing with the United States airline industry, and their hub cities. When the airline industry was deregulated, what was the competitiveness equation? Of course, it was the domination of hubs. That's the network effect. The more people you can get into one hub, the more you can make sure that they stay in your network. The same principle applies to what we do.

Technology adoption is driven by laws of increasing returns. When the first fax machine came out, it wasn't very useful. But when lots of people had them, all of a sudden, everyone else had to have them. When the first cellular phone came out, the same pattern unfolded.

These mass waves, driven by brands and people, are often confused by how absolutely crazy these markets are. One year you're a failure, the next year you're a billionaire. Back and forth and back and forth. It happens all the time. You announce a new product, and, in a week, you have a million customers, and, boom, you go public. You have to get the revenue later; ubiquity first, revenue later. That's what URL stands for.

My essential thesis here is that there are two intertwining issues. The human face of networking is interactive and changing; it's that interactivity. The network knows you, the intelligent network model. And that the adoption of technology is driven by increasing returns. The two together make our world extraordinarily dynamic and fascinating, and very, very competitive.

If you follow the new face of networking idea, then every face is different, and everyone's needs for networks are different. Every person on the network has a different perspective. So the world of needs is really about millions of new faces coming onto the Internet. Networks are empowering.

When people think about computers, they really think about themselves, and they think about what they can achieve. This technology and the industry that it is making is an incredibly personal one. Ultimately it's driven by the desire for intrinsic recognition that we all have. And people want this stuff now. We're busy building this world and we're building in cyberspace replicas of our physical space. So, for example, it shouldn't surprise you that there are saints and criminals on the net. There are even banks to put your money. You have to have churches where you can pray for support on the net. It makes sense that we're building all these new models.

In the middle of this, we have our chief information officer, who has enormous challenges. And in this new role that I have, I've spent a lot of time talking to them. The problem that they have is that they more or less had it wired like 10 years ago when they understood what everybody was doing.

We have a notion of a software distribution company to a distributor, that's the truck; to a CIO, that's the gentleman; to the user, that's the lady. What happens now is she goes directly, using the net, to the software manufacturer. You say, "No big deal; I do that all the time." The problem is, at least from a corporate perspective, serious, because of the support, asset management and legal use issues, the most important one being security. So you need a solution that works politically within the organization, that the lady, who is the end user, has to feel empowered, but the CIO has to be able to set up a framework.

So the correct way to think about this is that the services will evolve so that this end user will have permission granted through a set of directory-enabled solutions that allow her to get access to the things that she cares about. The CIO won't stand in the way; he'll make that happen. The CIO must embrace a view of the network that enables that.

Now, the CIO says, "What I really want is a network where I have a command central, a place where I have asset management, software distribution, bandwidth managing web access, security policies, those kinds of things."

The end user has a very different view. They want it all now; it's the world of me, they want to make it happen.

The key strategies in all of these faces are to use directory-enabled services to make those solutions available, and then give the end users and the CIOs the power to make those choices.

There's an enormous data explosion going on at the same time. The World Wide Web, HTTP, Java, etc., have made it so easy to publish any kind of data and deliver it in application web traffic, it's increasing at roughly 30 percent every three months. The World Wide Web traffic is approximately 31 terabytes per month. And the current expectation is it will grow by at least a factor of 100, which I looked up, it's 3 tetabytes, which is a really big number, per month.

You should expect that because of the latency inside of organizations, you'll see really innovative things, first on the web, and then they will move into corporations because of end user demand and so forth. So the web is this tremendous cauldron of innovation, which has awakened us from this sort of networking conundrum that we've had for so long.

It turns out that way because, with the interaction in the world of needs, there's an issue around being close to things. When you build these data networks, the most important issue is to have perceived proximity. You absolutely must have the data close to you. The technical solution for that is called replication. What you do is replicate caches and you make all that stuff work. By doing so, the network recognizes a person's identity and knows who you are.

The architecture that underlies these networks is built on a set of caches, a cache in a sense of a place where you keep local copy, and then complex algorithms that keep the caches up to date, because we all know that the computer performance and the demand from end users is outstripping the ability for enterprises to deploy bandwidth that they need. The combination of the two makes a great deal of sense.

As an aside, we have a BorderManager, which handles approximately 50,000 concurrent connections, and 5,000 pages per second, to do caching and proxy analysis. The equivalent NT and UNIX versions are 1/10th of those. That's an example of a sweet spot that you can find when you look around on these networks at all of these different devices.

So, we find ourselves living in a world that's very different from what we thought. I first thought we would have a series of tiers; first tier, second tier.... In fact, the ISPs that we so much depend on are interconnecting, which is great. And by doing so, they're, in fact, building a whole new network.

One thing that's happening is that the TCP/IP technology, that's becoming the basis for the world's data networks, is also suited for voice. And although today the percentage of the voice and data are roughly equal to first approximation, the expectation, in some analyses, is that in the next seven years the percentage of data versus voice will go down to about 1 percent voice. That gives you an idea of how significant this change is.

Why does this matter to us? Because this is a deregulated world. It's an example of an inversion. Just when you thought you understood exactly how everything would be priced in a P times 64 pricing architecture, all of a sudden we have an opportunity to change it again. I don't know how that will change it, but I know that it will affect a $650 billion industry.

Reed Hundt, a friend, and former FCC Chairman, said, -- and you'll love this -- "What we need is a high-speech, congestion-free, always reliable, friction-free, packet-switched, big bandwidth, data friendly network that is universally available, competitively priced and capable of driving our economy to new heights." Makes sense to me.

And, by the way, we're building it. We, together.

Put another way, what we need is a data network that can easily carry voice instead of what we have today, which is a voice network struggling to carry data.

By the way, yesterday AT&T announced WorldNet, a virtual private network service, with a business quality IP offering and end-to-end service guarantee. It enables remote access to LANs, extranets, intranets, that sort of thing. It brings down a huge complexity barrier for all of us as customers, and it uses a protocol called "radius," R-A-D-I-U-S, to authenticate into a directory, which happens to be Novell's NDS. It's happening, and it's happening very quickly.

There is a tornado happening. And this tornado is this change from this adoption of IP. I call this an intelligent network. I talked about it. This is as a replacement. In that model the subnet that you've built for so many years will die and be replaced by these interconnected TCPIP networks.

For us at Novell, Moab, the next version of NetWare, is the key part of our strategy, because that version of NetWare uses IP completely natively, and all the services that you as customers should know and love, and that have been best of class, will now be available on these open, interconnected networks, with extraordinary performance -- much higher performance than any of the other competitors in those spaces. That's the commitment that we've made. And it's in beta today.

Just saying TCP/IP, which appears to be a mantra in our industry, is not sufficient. It turns out that what's important is that you have the base case to TCP/IP and then all these services, which run on top. The enabled services turn out to be the differentiator. In a situation of open interoperability, where everybody has the same stuff, how do you differentiate? In our case, it would be to make this tornado be worth something to your business. Don't be afraid by the destruction that the tornado means. Ultimately, it's a much better model.

The other issue that people are struggling with is a set of border or firewall issues. As people are building these networks, there are huge issues around security and access and those kinds of things. The original model that we pushed three or four years ago was that there was going to be this firewall, and there was the intranet, where the good guys are; and the Internet, where the bad guys are; and then there's the firewall, which is the Dr. No. It says no to everything.

The problem with that is it was an extraordinarily inflexible architecture; it was not the correct technical approach. What you, in fact, need is about 45 shades of gray. Because our customers -- and I suspect most of you -- are trying very hard to interconnect your customers, your suppliers, with different levels of service. Some are friendly. You're going to deal differently with your customers and your partners than with your competitors, but you may even collaborate with your competitors some. You need this different approach.

The point here is that security should be a business decision for you.

IDG, after we announced BorderManager, said, "With initiatives like BorderManager, Novell is, for the first time, truly repositioning its core competencies strongly within the Internet space."

You have an opportunity here to drive a very different and powerful IP model. The Internet service providers have all the border, all the caching, all the security and all the naming issues that I'm describing. So a combination of solving the ISP, caching, access and security problems turns out to be a huge sweet spot for all of us to drive literally right through -- mixing metaphors; you get the idea.

And we've heard a lot about thin clients, and they're a lot of fun. There's this thin client, and that thin client, and then there's -- well, there's not so thin clients. And then there's the fat client. I bet you all didn't know you had a lot of fat clients when you bought them.

If you take a look, it's actually happening. People expect over the next few years to build a lot of non-PC devices. It's very clear to me that one size no longer fits all. But I don't think it's going to be either/or; it's clearly going to be a mix. You want the promise of a network computer, for a lot of the reasons that we've talked about, but you also want to use your existing investments.

So perhaps a better approach is to NC your PC. In order to do that, there's a set of services that you need; in particular, you need a directory service that can keep information and hold the stats somewhere else than in your fat client. By moving the complexity from the PC client onto the network, you can pull that off. From our perspective, NetWare is the perfect model to do this. It has the dedicated performance and the scalability to handle many, many different devices and the right platform for directory-level kinds of things.

What's happening in this whole initiative is people are beginning to develop applications, and this, to me, is incredibly important. The whole Java phenomenon -- I'll talk about that in a few minutes -- is creating a new sort of network architecture. These are applications which are distributed by design, a little different from what we use today, multi-user by need, geographically dispersed by necessity. They derive value from using a thin client, and they often include work flow.

If you look at the players in the industry pushing this, Oracle, for example, has something called NCA, which is really data in the network. Sun calls this Java Computing. Netscape calls this Netscape ONE, really web computing. IBM calls this the "Open Blueprints," also network computing. Novell calls this an open solutions architecture. Microsoft has named this the Gang of Five, and feels it's a conspiracy. I'd prefer to think of it as being right.

This initiative around building these new categories of applications is one that all of us can play in, and it really does match the model that our customers -- and everyone's customers -- are really striving for, to move to this 1990s, Year 2000 kind of model.

If you look, for example, at PC ownership -- and you've heard these PCO arguments for years, and they never seem to get solved -- we've been analyzing this, and guess what? It turns out that the majority of the cost of PC ownership is the management of them. And you might say, "Well just don't manage them." That isn't a rational option for most corporations, although for folks in this room who are very sophisticated, perhaps.

What makes up your identity is your relationship to things. This way, you have a place in the hierarchy. You're identified by your company, your geography, your department, and yourself as an individual. And you can interact with things in the network world differently, depending on which department -- and I know you say to this, "Well, isn't this obvious?" It's obvious to us as humans, but not to our computers. Our computers are authenticated to the machine, not to you. So the solutions that we build, and the solutions that Novell is building, are based on this notion of the digital persona, that you get inalienable rights when you get yourself installed into the network.

From the technology perspective, you get access to services, you get through routers, you have modem banks, all those other kinds of things. The important thing is that you can authenticate to the person using the technologies that I'm describing. And you can end up in a situation where the network knows you.

So start thinking about, for example, when a new person joins your organization, what's their life like. What I thought I would do is take you through that a little bit and describe what happens when the network knows you. I want to demonstrate how this world might work. I'd like to do is ask three people who work at Novell -- J.D. Marymee, Kent Prows and Gary Hein to join me on stage.

MR. PROWS: The demonstration that we've put together is deceptively simple and yet extremely powerful. We're going to take two perspectives of this technology: one from the administrator, played by J.D.; the second played by Gary. The idea we wanted to portray is of a digital persona, and that with a single user we can expose this digital persona.

So we took a little bit different tack here, and we decided to create a new CEO inside of Novell.

MR. PROWS: J.D., you know, in this world, exposing this digital persona is kind of like, you know, you've got all of these different technologies: You've got e-mail, you've got database actions, you've got file imprints, you've got Groupware, you've got application management, you've got software distribution, you've got all of these things. And from the administrator's perspective, J.D., what's it like to administer all this stuff?

MR. MARYMEE: Well, as an administrator, I'm responsible for thousands of workstations, hundreds of different sites and constantly trying to integrate new technologies into our existing systems with our existing infrastructure. Making all these systems work together as a solution is extremely difficult usually, but adding a new user to our company used to require coordination between half a dozen network administrators, each of whom was responsible for a piece of the complete enterprise solution.

I've got all these issues now distilled down to a single user create. So we're going to create Eric now; expose his digital persona. This is a flashback to when Eric got his desk. What's your last name, Dr. Schmidt? And I'm going to have one template that's going to create everything. And in addition to that we're also going to allow him to get access to e-mail over the web. I'm going to put a password in for that, so it's at least somewhat secure over the Internet.

MR. SCHMIDT: While this is happening, you're setting up this digital persona in the entire enterprise network?

MR. MERRAMI: Yes, I am. As a matter of fact, there I go. Now I've actually got him set up to do things like access to his workstation, access to e-mail, access to the Internet -- or limited access to the Internet, depending on how I want to govern that -- access to the Netscape enterprise web server, even access to file and print services, both on NT and on Netware.

MR. PROWS: Well, let's come over to our new CEO, played by Gary.

Gary, how does this affect you?

MR. HEIN: I'm a CEO, not really a computer geek -- well, maybe a little bit. So, I really don't care about operating systems and protocols; I just need to have applications on a desktop to do my job. I want to come to Novell my first day at work, log in one time and have access to all the resources I need to do my job, regardless of what platforms those happen to be hosted on.

MR. PROWS: Well, J.D. created your account over there, Eric. Why don't you log into here. You've got an NT workstation that's got the network client, and that's it. So why don't you log in and let's see what happens.

MR. HEIN: It looks like I got into my NT workstation, got to the desktop, and it's pausing a little bit; but it should probably start to pull down some information here. What's happening here?

MR. PROWS: J.D., from your perspective, what did you do to Eric?

MR. MARYMEE: NT Workstation is a secure desktop, which means the user has got to have a password before accessing a workstation. So I'm providing a single sign-on to the NT workstation, creating a user in NDS, actually granted the user rights to his desktop, in this case Eric, saving me, the administrator, the work of manually creating the workstation account on that particular machine. The benefit to Eric is he didn't need a second password to get into that system.

And before Eric can start to do his job, though, he needs applications on his desktop. The directory knows who Eric is, and we're using this information to install and configure software that he needs to do his job.

MR. PROWS: Wow, it looks like everything came down. You know, your bitmap, the new corporate bitmap, and I know that you're the CEO, but, even at that, I doubt you can even change this bitmap.

MR. HEIN: Yeah, I know NT; it's easy for me to change this. I just go under properties, click on properties, and I can change -- well, nothing, really.

MR. PROWS: So I guess we know who really controls all this stuff.

MR. HEIN: What happened. I don't understand.

MR. MARYMEE: Because you're known in the directory, we can actually configure applications on your desktop and everything with information from your digital persona that is stored in the directory.

MR. PROWS: It looks, Eric, like your communicator was downloaded there. Why don't you start that up, and let's see what kind of work you can do?

MR. HEIN: Before I do that, we can do a lot in GroupWise and so forth, but I really need some more applications down on my desktop. We just purchased a lot of licenses for some productivity apps, so I'm going to ask my administrator, J.D., to set up some more applications on my desktop for me.

MR. MARYMEE: We're going to add a couple applications here to Gary; not just to Gary though; anybody that happens to be in that part of the tree will also get access to these applications. So put in Access, Powerpoint, Word, those kinds of things.

And just with a couple of clicks, I've actually delivered availability for those applications down to Eric's platform.

MR. HEIN: Before I can do any work, I need to customize my computer and my applications so it understands my identity, my persona. So what I'd like to do is configure my preferences in this Netscape Communicator with my information, my identity. Well, it looks like it's already there: My e-mail address is in there, and my name. How did that happen? This application isn't necessarily NDS aware.

MR. MARYMEE: Remember that as we bring this information down, we go and read your digital persona, and we can customize any application as it's distributed to the desktop to match your exact needs.

MR. HEIN: Let's go out and browse the web. We have a little issue, being from Utah, and our engineers are relatively frustrated and spend a lot of time out on the web. And I've asked my administrator over here to make sure that this doesn't happen any longer. So I'm going to go out to see if he's actually doing his job here, and go out to Playboy, you know, just for the articles. And, hey wait a minute, it looks like I couldn't get in for some reason, although I used to be able to get in -- I mean, users used to be able to get in here.

MR. PROWS: J.D., why don't you explain to the new CEO why this happened.

MR. MARYMEE: BorderManager makes Internet access, actually that kind of management simple. I just create a couple of rules that control access to content on the web, such as non-productive sites like the one that Eric just hit. Once again, the directory manages who these rules affect.

So, Gary, instead of sitting around browsing the web, let me give you a URL from the new on-line realtime sales database. And, of course, since now you're a user in your e-mail system as well, I can e-mail this to you. And we'll just say "new URL; sales.novell.com."

MR. HEIN: I spend a lot of time on the road, and, I'd like to access my e-mail anywhere. I don't always have a connection to the phone system, believe it or not, but I always will have a connection to the Internet. So, I'm going to actually log in and access my e-mail right out of my web browser.

MR. MARYMEE: The URL that I sent Gary points to an application running on a Netscape interface server running on Novell's NetWare, produced by Novonyx. This application is actually running server-side Java script that natively connects to our Oracle sales database.

MR. HEIN: So we can go ahead and go to the URL here. This looks like the front-end to our new Oracle database. I'd like to go ahead and check sales for a couple of the different regions. And it looks like North America is a little bit behind their quota. So I want to check on which of our sales reps is in the North America region, and how close they are to their quota.

MR. HEIN: What's basically happened at this point is I've used a standard web browser, talked to my Netscape sweet spot server that's running a Java server side scripting that talks natively to the Oracle database, posted on the intraNetWare server, and, I can go through and browse the sales figures from any web browser anywhere in the world.

This is wonderful. Everything I needed to do my job happened the very first day.

MR. PROWS: Well, J.D., I also noticed that one of the requirements that we've put up there was access to that one operating system, oh, NT. And I was just wondering, you had access there; how did you do that?

MR. MARYMEE: Let's go in and add them into another domain. I can manage my domain information now using NDS for NT. In NDS I'm going to go in and take Eric's account; with that single create we actually gave him access to a domain already and then add him into another domain; it's just a matter of choosing a domain that I'm interested in. In this case we'll go into the Seattle domain. That's how simple it is to manage user access to NT domains now using NDS for NT.

MR. PROWS: To summarize, the challenges that we face with daily are both from the users', as well as the administrators', perspectives. They need access to applications. They need to be able to manage the desktop. We have groupware needs, and e-mail. We need access to the Internet. We need to be able to control access to the Internet as well. We need database access to do our jobs and also file and print.

We've demonstrated that when a user is created, this digital persona is also created. And based on the information you put into the directory. The directory then manages that relationship and provides you with the ability to get access to the information that you need.

DR. SCHMIDT: The important message about that demo is that those products are shipping, except for the Netscape web server from our subsidiary called Novonyx; that ships in beta Thanksgiving week and is downloadable from the net at www.novonyx.com. Quite a departure from what many of you think Novell is doing.

Another important point is there's a much broader story about what we can do. The current sorry state of our networks would be represented by a human face is wrapped up in wires. It's enormously complicated. The average number of directories that a person in a Fortune 500 company is in, in the Fortune 500 company, is about 120.

We at Novell took our eye off the ball, but now we have a solution for all of this. We have distributed network services in the mid tier -- that's what the Moab and NetWare stuff is all about; a platform for management of these services -- that's the directory, our ManageWise product, etc.; and a new and renewed attractiveness to the developer community.

The directory simplifies because of one of the most fundamental principles in computer science, which is that every problem can be solved by one level of indirection. What we've done essentially is taken all of the complexity that you all deal with every day and put it in a place which is in the network. It's intelligent, it's replicated, it's cached, and it's an area where we have a significant competitive lead.


The Aberdeen Group wrote that "NDS for NT, the same product running on NT, even obviates the need for Microsoft's Active Directory," which is good, because it doesn't exist yet.

People are doing user account management, desktop and network management, collaboration and application management -- all made possible through this model.

What you saw in the demo is the principle that we call application redirection. The old-timers here know that Novell made its name because of DOS file redirection -- a unique skill within the company. By bringing out a set of libraries and services that are on the wire protocol compatible with everybody else, we can now take all the applications that you use and have all this happen without your user or systems administrator intervention. That second phase is a huge change in the way you all use networks. But by delivering this common access management security framework, you don't need to rewrite your apps; you get all sorts of benefits, shared data, less hardware; everything's more secure. The total cost of ownership solutions -- we've got white paper after white paper from the marketing folks giving you all the data -- is incredible. I think it's intuitively obvious how strong that stuff really is.

By the way, we're going to do it for NT NetWare and also for UNIX.

Java is also part of our strategy, for obvious reasons. To give you an idea of how well Java is doing, Java today is very much a huge success. There have been more than 1.1 million downloads of the JDK 1.1. IDC says there are 450,000 Java programmers, and 700,000 projected for 1998. This is for a language that is two years old. There are 800 books, showing where the real revenue is. There are 400,000 websites using Java. There are more than 1,000 applications shipping. And at the Java1 conference in March, there were approximately 10,000 attendees. This is a very, very significant phenomenon in our landscape.

To date, 87 percent of the application developments has been on the client. And that's where you have all the fun. That's where all the battles over who controls what and who has this library and the lawsuits and so forth are really being fought out.

But people are missing the real story behind this. The real opportunity for Java will turn out to be when it's implemented on the server. Middle tier -- remember, there's the middle tier where a lot of the competition goes on in networks today -- is where server-side Java will take off. We call this again the intelligence in the middle. It's very powerful. By its very nature that tier is not dominated by any single monopoly. There's lots of different choices. They're not going to go away. Customers have lots of complexity problems.

So server-side Java plays to one of Java's strongest suits, which is platform independence: faster performance, portability of applications. It has the right architecture to build these new network-aware applications. This is a core part of our strategy.

Now, it's incredibly important that the APIs in the industry not get split. And if you read sections 2.6 and 2.8 of the Contract, you can form your own opinion about what 117 licensees have all agreed to do.

Java is more than a dancing bear on your website. It's really the language of electronic commerce. And where are we in all of this? The Java language will replace C and C++, and the 100 million JVMs that are out there really are an enormous asset for universities, new language development and things like that. Key computer companies, key software companies -- companies like Novell, universities, etc., are going to build new dedicated platforms that use Java to provide new value. And those dedicated platforms will eventually -- and eventually needs to be underscored -- become major platform players in our industry. It will take a while because of applications and robustness and things like that.

Java on the server will be platform-independent, and the client depends a lot on things like how the litigation plays.

The technical issues will be fixed independently of the battles between Sun and Microsoft.

The future for Java breaking into the mainstream with the server components, and an incredibly scalable JVM on the server -- in our case one that is going to be probably higher in performance than its competitors -- is a key part of that value proposition going forward.

To put that into perspective, we've got an architecture that solves the final piece of the problem. If you take a look at the architectures that I mentioned earlier, they tend to be client or applications category specific; they're all important, but they're missing the component that provides them the manageability and the distributed Java solutions. By bringing out something we call the open solutions architecture, we can deliver the back end of the services that make this whole value proposition happen, better than anyone else.

The key is to build an infrastructure that is targeting networks, developers and ISPs. Then we can provide the complete management infrastructure on top of them and make the rest of this stuff work.

We are building all of the pieces. This is a diagram which shows you each of the different layers -- and I know it's a busy slide. The important thing is that it's based on the principles of the Internet. Each of the set of interfaces is open. Anybody can adopt them. In most cases, they're already industry standard, and, in those others, we will work with the appropriate partners. By doing so, we have a strong commitment to open interfaces on the server side, -- which, again, is where the action is going to be -- to build these business critical applications across the net.

Now, how do you know how you're doing, against this sort of broad panoply of choices and direction that I've laid out? I tried in one slide to sort of say, well, what's the waypoint? A waypoint is a progress point to the network age. For example, e-mail; everybody in your company needs to use e-mail. You need to use internal web stuff. The security policy has to be there. The bandwidth has to be there, and you have to manage it in an interesting way. There has to be a directory. The applications have to be integrated with it. And the various other enabling solutions all must be present. Most customers, when they've used this, struggle with getting all this deployed. This is ground zero in the networking industry today. Getting these things implemented is the next stage. These are the things that are on everyone's very short-term time horizon. And, again, Novell has solutions in each of these cases.

So, where are we and how do we grow our business? How do we make our company really go? I am fortunate to be involved with a company where most people in the industry are already customers. So we begin by saying, "You're probably already a network customer, and NetWare is going to be completely TCP/IP capable in the next six to nine months." And everybody says, "That's a good idea."

Along the way, we're deploying this directory called NDS. Many customers don't know this, by the way. They are aware that there's a directory, but they don't understand what it's good for. They use it for, say, sign-on. But once you have this directory, you're enabled in all sorts of the ways that I described. By having the directory-enabled applications that I described and others that we will be announcing on a monthly basis over the next six months, we can deliver network-centric applications. The progress for our ManageWise business and our GroupWise business is all part of that. The BorderManager products are all integrated with that.

And because we do dedicated kernels and because we do networking software that does networking and nothing else, our products are more -- they have the abilities; they're more scalable, they're more reliable, they're more available. All of those abilities turn out to make sense if you have a best-of-breed approach.

That story is sufficient to grow Novell's business, to restore its leadership position in key parts of the networking industry. But there's a twist, and the twist is Java. By adding the ability to run these Java applications that I highlighted briefly for you, we can actually become a significant need to your server vendor as well.

So those are the stages. That's how we put all this stuff together.

In taking the lead, we as a company are now going through the first phase -- think of it as a stabilized phase, a learn-how-to; things like Management 101, deliver products on time, solve your customers problems of one kind or another. That phase probably goes on for another six to nine months until this next generation of products is shipping and customers are excited about it.

And then there's an opportunity to drive and an opportunity to thrive. The drive part is focusing on innovation in the standards world, driving new applications categories along the lines that I described, and really driving the network services ISP integration. There's enormous growth in those markets.

Once we deliver on that, it's possible, for example, to get to this interesting ultimate destination that is very much Java-based. I think it will take a couple of years for all of that to happen. And to the degree that leadership is inventing the future, Novell will lead and others will follow in this new world.

I want to go back to my earlier theme, which is that the new face of networking has a human face. It has your face and my face on it. I've taken you through a clear understanding of where networking and Novell are going and what our product portfolio looks like. We will win because we have a product strategy in place that will reconcile the drive towards this new face of networking with the landscape, the reality that many of you deal with. We are one of the companies on the verge of one of the most exciting new areas of network computing. Network computing is the interesting thing to be doing. I'm glad to be part of it, and I want to thank you all for being part of it, too.


网络新面貌

  当来自Softbank的人士询问:需要多长时间才能建立一个拥有二十五万名用户、五百万条信息的网络时,我们的回答是:“几天,或许一周”。敢于如此断言的原因在于,我们在Compaq公司的帮助下,确实作到了这一点。对此,我非常自豪。然而,我们却犯了个小“错误”── 职员们真正做到的,实际上应该是每天一千八百五十万条信息 ── 我认为这真是难以置信。

  下面一小时,我将带着您一起去感受网络的重要作用、网络的美好前景以及在业界即将出现的令人振奋的大事。

  时至今日,Novell有了更加明确的奋斗目标。我们正试图使高新技术与我们的现有客户承诺保持平衡。我们正在对应用的复杂性 ──这是在座每一位人士所面对的──进行管理。与此同时,我们正在与客户共同规划长期的信息技术战略。

  因此,Novell将把重点重新放在帮助人们运行其网络所需的技术之上,而这正是我们所追求的。

  思维的速度

  我的发言实际上是关于网络新面貌的问题。当今,网络的新面貌已不再是接口,甚至已不再是单一的面貌了。联网的新面貌就象人类的面貌一样,它的数目可以与网络用户数相提并论。

  回顾过去15年间所做的每一件事情,你会发现我们始终受制于“摩尔法则”。它可以算得上是发起COMDEX、并使它象今天这样富有生机的原因。如今,我们正在向另一种境界迈进,在这种境界里,我们将更多的通过“光速”来进行管理。但是,我认为光速绝非最终极限,一切都将取决于人类思维的速度,取决于组织在处理网络所带来的复杂性和创造性的能力;结果将证明,我们要做的最重要事情就是解决这一问题;而我们所需要的是处理这一系列问题的自适应系统。

  我们所从事的行业还很年轻,但却突飞猛进。我们所面对的是时间压缩和全球化问题。对于过去的业绩,我们感到非常自豪。但是,现在大家所见到的是,“摩尔法则”的作用正不断减弱,我将强调的问题则越来越突出,最终将成为前进的障碍。换句话说,我们所缺少的是时间:人员的时间、客户的时间,适应这些新模型的时间;而这些恰恰又都是摆在我们面前的机遇。

  那么,这一问题到底有多严重呢?好,让我们看一组有趣的统计数字。环球网的规模:根据IDC最新统计,目前大约有七千一百三十万个环球网用户,预计到2000年将会有一亿三千万个用户,它们的复合增长率将产生更加巨大的数字。我们常说,按照目前的增长率,到2004年地球上的每个人都将拥有自己的环球网地址。但是如果您看一下我们将要参观的商业展示数后,您会发现,到2004年,每个人都将有自己的商业展示。并且,它仍正在有条不紊地发展着。

  从静态向动态转变

  在此,需要进行的是由静态向动态的根本性转变,而这一转变将成为我们所做的几乎每一件事的重要支柱。大家只要在开始思考其内在含义的时候,才能认识到这一点,原因是Internet和网络技术正在为人们带来一套全新的媒体。

  有许多这样的例子:如创造性的模式匹配,或者我们以前确实无法完成,但计算机能够完成的事情。它不但可以观察您的工作,判断您的需求,还可以为未来的一切提供建议。

  不知您是否注意到,但Amzaon.com ── 我在网络上使用的服务之 ── 现在记得您的书目,并可根据感知算法,对用户想购买的书提出建议。还记得书店上一次为您做这项工作是在什么时候吗?

  这种例子还有很多。例如,美国航空公司有这样一项计划,对于那些通过电子方式购买机票的顾客,可以立即给出更新的价格,以便顾客确切地知道他(她)想要的座位价格。

  应该看到,计算机的作用并非仅仅代替我们所熟悉的物理世界,它还有许多其它方面的作用,并且这一切都由围绕网络效应的系列法则所控制。

  回首20年前,网络的出现确实带来了惊人的效应。为了发展美国航空工业及它们的中心城市,有很多人花费了大量时间四处游说。当航空工业撤消管制后,谁又能与之争锋呢?当然是对中心城市的控制。这正是网络的影响。在中心城市中的人数越多,就越能保证他们处在网络中。同样的法则也适用于我们所从事的工作。

  技术的采纳和应用受日益增长的回报法则所驱动。当第一台传真机问世时,它用处并不大。但是当许多人拥有它后,其他人会突然发现它是必不可少的。第一台蜂窝式电话问世时,情况也是如此。

  市场的疯狂(由品牌和人所驱动)究竟有多大你无法理解。今年你可能是个失败者,,但明年你有可能摇身一变成为亿万富翁。如此反复无常。这种事情在任何时候都可能发生。你今天刚宣布一个新产品,然而在一周之后,你却拥有上百万的客户,而且不断兴荣。然后,你就公开上市。随后,你就会受益。先是无所不在,后是受益颇丰。这正是URL的真正意义。

  我的主要观点:存在着两个相互交织在一起的问题。一方面,联网人的面貌是交互性的而且不断变化(如网络通过智能网络模型识别你)。另一方面,技术的采纳是受日益增长的回报所驱动的。这两者共同使我们的世界充满了生机和魅力,并且更具竞争性。

  我的世界

  如果大家赞同联网的新面貌这一想法,那么每个面貌都是不同的,并且每个人对网络的需求也不相同。从而,在网络上每个人的看法也不尽相同。需求的世界实际上也就因进入Internet的数以百万计的新面貌的不同而不同。网络的职责就是进行授权。

  当人们思考计算机时,他们实际上是在考虑自己,而且在考虑自己能从中获得什么。这一技术及其所建立的行业也就具有了不可思议的个性。最终,它将受我们共有的内在愿望所驱动。我们正在忙碌地建立这一世界,而且,我们正在电脑空间建立我们物理空间的复制品。因此,如果在网络上出现圣人或罪犯都是不足为奇的。网络上甚至有可以存款的银行。并且在网络上用于祈求支持的地方还不得不设立教堂。也就是说建立所有这些新模型都是有意义的。

  在这中间,我们有自己的信息主管,他将面临巨大的挑战。处在这样一个新职位,我已经花费了许多时间与他们交谈。他们遇到的问题是,当他们了解到所有人所做的事情时,或多或少地采用了十年前的处理方法。

  CIO的挑战

  我们有这样的观念,软件发行公司对于发行人来说,是货车;对CIO来说,是绅士;对用户来说,是女人。目前发生的事情是,她可以通过网络直接与软件生产商联系。您可以说:“没多大关系;我一直在这样做。”由于缺乏支持、资产管理和法律使用,最重要的是安全性方面的保障,至少从公司的角度来讲这个问题相当严重。因此,您需要一个在组织内部可行的解决方案,从而作为最终用户的女士会觉得拥有很大的权力,但CIO必须能建立一个结构框架。

  可见,对此问题的正确思考方法是继续拓展服务,以便最终用户能够通过一组基于目录的解决方案获得许可,以访问她们关心的东西。CIO不会坐视不管;他将极力促成这件事。为此,CIO必须胸怀实现这样一个网络的目标。

  CIO对网络的看法

  如今,CIO也许会说:“我实际上需要一个网络,在这个网络我拥有一个指挥中心、拥有一个地方,在那里我可以进行资产管理、软件发布、带宽管理、环球网访问、安全政策等诸如此类的东西”。

  而终端用户却有一个极为不同的观点。他们现在就需要这一切。那是一个自我的世界,他们希望这一切能够发生。

  在所有这些面貌中的关键战略就是:利用目录启动型服务来使那些解决方案可用,然后授权终端用户和CIO进行上述选择。

  信息在爆炸!

  当前,信息在爆炸。WWW、HTTP、Java等等这一切使得发布和应用环球网并传输任何种类的小数据都易如反掌,它们在以每三个月近30%的速度增长着。WWW的通信量大约为每月31兆兆字节。而据目前的推测,它将至少以100的倍数增长,我估计,就是3TB。对每个月来说,这的确是个巨大的数目。

  你应该预料到,由于组织内部存在的巨大潜力,你将会看到许多富于创新的东西,首先是在网上,随后应终端用户的需求移入公司内部。于是,环球网成了新事物的大熔炉,它把我们从这种长期存在的网络之谜中唤醒。

  之所以会产生这种结果,是由于随着需求世界的相互作用,使得我们周围不断出现与事物息息相关的问题。当你建立这些数据网络时,最重要的问题就是要有一个大概的把握。你务必要保证数据随手可得。对于这个问题的技术性解决方案被称为复制。你所做的就是复制高速缓存,然后让所有这些运作起来。通过这样做,网络就可以确认一个人的身份,知道你是谁。

  构成这些网络的结构是建立在一套高速缓冲存储器基础上的,这里高速缓存的含义是一处可供你存储本地副本及复杂算法的地方,其中算法将使这些高速缓存不断更新。因为我们都知道,计算机的性能和来自于最终用户的需求正在超越企业部署它们所需带宽的能力,所以这二者的结合具有重要意义。

  这里顺便提一下,我们拥有了用来进行高速缓存和代理分析的BorderManager,它可以管理大约50,000个并发连接,以及每秒处理5000个页面,而同类的NT和UNIX版本系统的能力则仅占它的十分之一。当你通过这些形形色色的设备在网上进行查询时,你会体会到这是一个令人欣喜的发现。

  生活在一个跳跃的世界

  所以,我发现我们自己正生活在一个与最初想象截然不同的世界里。我原以为我们本应有许多层次:第一层,第二层 ......。而实际上,我们所依赖的这些ISP是互相连接的,这一点相当重要,而且通过这种连接,它们事实上正在建立一个的新的网络。

  正在发生的一件事就是,正逐步成为世界数据网络基础的TCP/IP技术同样适用于声音的传输。虽然从目前来看,声音和数据所占百分比大体相近,而据某些分析家预测,在七年以后数据与声音间的比值将降至1%。这种变化的重要性由此可想而知了。

  为什么说这种变化会对我们至关重要呢?因为这是一个不规则的世界,而它正是一个反面的范例。当你认为自己很清楚在一个P×64的价格体系中估价各种事物时,我们会突然得到一个将它再次改变的机会。虽然我不还清楚那种变化将如何发生,但我知道它将会影响价值6500亿美元的产业。

  我的一位朋友,前FCC主席Reed Hundt曾说(你会喜欢的):“我们所需要的是一个高度语音化、没有阻塞、永久可靠、无碎片、包交换、大带宽、数据友好的网络,它应该是普遍可用,具有竞争性的价格,并且能把我们的经济推向更新的高度。”这番话对我启发很大。

  顺便说一句,我们正在建立这种网络,一起合作进行。

  换句话说,我们所需要的是一个能够容易地传递声音而不是象今天那样在传送数据时声音很难传送的网络。

  日前,AT&T公司发布了WorldNet,这是一种虚拟的专用网络服务。它承诺将提供商业质量的IP产品和端到端服务。它可以实现对局域网(LAN)、外部网(extranet)、intranet及诸如此类东西的远程访问。对于我们这些所有用户来说,它清除在复杂性方面所存在的大量障碍,并且它使用一种被称为“radius”的协议认证进入一个目录,它恰恰就是Novell公司的NDS。它正在发生,并且正在迅速变化。

  IP龙卷风

  这是一场龙卷风。这场龙卷风就是由于采用IP而引起的巨大变化,我把它称为智能网络。我曾谈到过它。这是一种替代。在这种模式下,你已经建立多年的子网将不复存在,并为这些互相连接的TCP/IP网络所取代。

  对于我们Novell公司的员工来说,NetWare的新版本Moab是我们战略的关键部分,原因是该版本的NetWare从根本上完全采用了IP,而且作为用户所应知道并喜爱的所有第一流的服务将会在这些开放、互相连接的网络上向大家提供,它具有更高的性能──远远优于该领域的其它任何竞争者的性能。该系统目前已进入beta测试阶段。

  我们刚提到的TCP/IP虽然看上去是我们业界的mantra,但这很片面。实际上最重要的一点是TCP/IP只是其中的基础部分,还存在着运行于其上的各种各样的服务。这些服务实际上可以充当某种鉴别工具。当身份相同的人员相互协作时,如何区分他们呢?对我们来讲,这可能会引起相当大的混乱,因而公司确实值得仔细考虑这件事情。请注意,千万别被这种混乱所造成的破坏吓倒。说到底,它还是一种非常好的模式。

  灰色的阴影

  人们竭力要解决的另一个议题是一系列边界或者防火墙的问题。在人们建立这些网络的同时,围绕安全和访问等诸如此类的事情就产生了大量的问题。我们在三、四年前所推出的最初模式是配备防火墙,即会拥有intranet──好人之所在,以及Internet──坏人之所在。防火墙,也就是“不”博士,它对一切都说“不”。

  这是一种极不灵活的结构。实际上,用户正试图把自己的客户、供应商与不同级别的服务互相连接起来。有些是友好的。你想把你的竞争对手与你的客户和合作伙伴区别开来,给予不同的对待。但你也可能与你的竞争对手开展某种程度上的合作。你需要这种不同的方式。

  这里的核心意思就是安全应当成为你的经营决策之一。

  我们发布了Border Manager之后,IDG称:“使用Border Manager一类的创新产品,使Novell在Internet领域中首次、也是真正地展示了自己所具备的强大竞争力及核心地位。”

  这里你将有机会见识一种全新的、强有力的IP模式。ISP具有我所描述的所有边界、所有高速缓存、所有安全和所有命名问题。所以,对ISP、高速缓存、访问和安全问题的综合解决就会成为我们大家都真正感到兴奋的巨大成果。

  你已经听说过许多有关小客户的事,他们很有趣。这样的小客户,那样的小客户,还有……哦不太小的客户等等,然后还有大客户。我敢肯定你在买该产品的时候并不知道还会有许多大客户出现。

  让我们看一下吧,事实上事情已经在发生了。人们预料在未来几年内会有大量非PC设备诞生。很明显,一手准备将再也不能应付各种情况了。但是我并不认为需要选择这个或那个的方法;显然应当使用混合模式。我知道你希望得到有关其适应于网络计算机的承诺,鉴于种种原因,我们已经谈论过它了。不过放心,你的先期投入将会一样有效。

  人们渴望在今后的几年里生产出许多非PC设备。或许一个更好的办法是将你的PC升级变为NC。要做到这一点,你还需要一系列服务。尤其是,你需要能够保存信息和在你的胖客户机以外的其它地方保持现状的目录服务。通过把复杂性从PC客户机转移到网络上,你能够取得成功。在我们的设想中,NetWare是完成此项工作的最佳模式。它具有卓越的性能和可扩展性,可以处理许许多多不同设备及选择处理目录级别的合适平台。

  基于这种创新设计,人们正开始开发应用程序。正是这一点,对我们无比重要。我想花几分钟来谈一些事情。整个Java现象正在创造一种新型网络结构,就是根据需求实现多用户、根据必要性分布于不同区域的应用程序(这与我们今天使用的略有不同)。它们从使用瘦客户机中取得价值,并且往往将工作流包括在内。

  如果你想看一看业界推动这一技术的公司,比如Oracle,它具有一种称为NCA的产品,是网络中真正的数据,Sun公司将其称为Java计算,Netscape公司称之为Netscape ONE,一种真正的网络计算,IBM公司则称之为“开放蓝图”,也就是网络计算,Novell公司称之为开放式解决方案架构,Microsoft公司将其命名为“五人帮”,并感到它是一个阴谋。我倾向于认为它是正确的。

  PC所有权的总费用

  有关建立一些全新应用的设想是我们大家都能参与的,并且它切实满足了我们的客户 ── 以及所有人的客户 ── 所梦寐以求的模式,而这个模式是90年代以至2000年的模式。

  比方说,你可以看一下PC的所有权费用 ── 对于有关PCO的争论你也许早有耳闻,它已经持续数载,并且看起来毫无解决迹象 ── 对此,我们已经作了分析,你猜怎样?结果表明PC所有权的绝大部分费用花在自身的管理上。你也许会说:“那么就别管它们好了。” 尽管也许在座各位都已久经沙场,然而对于大多数公司来说,这样做绝不算上策。

  “数字人”

  构成你的特性的东西是你与周围事物的关系。这样,你在等级体系中就有了一席之地。识别你的方式是通过你所在的公司、地理位置、部门、以及你个人。而且你可以在网络世界里与各种事物进行着不同的交流,这取决于你在哪一个部门 ── 我知道你会这样说,“那不是明摆着的么?” 当然这对于我们人来说是很明显的事,但对于计算机来说却并非如此。我们的计算机是对机器而不是对你进行确认的。因此,我们所建立的解决方案,以及Novell公司正在建立的解决方案,是基于digital persona(数字人)这一概念的。也就是当你接上网络时,你便有了不可剥夺的权利。

  数字人

  从技术前景上看,你可以获得服务访问、打通各个路由器,并拥有现代化的银行等所有诸如此类的东西。更重要的是你能够认识到我所描述的使用这些技术的人。并且你只需到达网络能识别你的地方就行了。

  生活中的一天

  因此,请试着想一下,当一个新人加入你的组织时,他们的生活会是怎样的。我想我会带着你去感受一下当网络识别你后将发生的事情,并为你示范此时的世界是如何运转的。为此,我很愿意邀请在Novell公司工作的三位同仁 ──J.D. Marymee、Kent Prows以及Gary Hein,分别扮演一个角色,一起加入这个舞台。

  Prows先生:我们共同做的这个示范表演看起来非常简单,然而它却非同小可。我们将分别从该技术的两个角度扮演:一个是从管理人员的角度,由J.D.扮演;另一个从客户在角度,由Gary扮演。我们在这里所要展示的思想是关于一个“数字人”,以及这个“数字人”背后的用户。

  为此,让我们在这儿改变一下真实情况,设想在Novell内部建立一个新的CEO。

  Prows先生:J.D.,你知道,在这个世界上,揭示这样一个“数字人”就好象那种,你已经拥有了各种技术:如电子邮件、数据库操作、文件印记、GroupWare、应用程序管理、软件发布等所有这些事情。并且从管理员的角度看,J.D.,你该怎样管理这些原材料呢?

  Marymee先生:那好,作为一个管理人员,我要负责数几千个工作站、数百个站点,以及不断尝试新技术与现有基础结构上系统的集成。作为一个解决方案,使所有这些系统协同工作通常极为困难,但添加一个新用户到公司只需在六个网络管理员之间协调,每个管理员分别负责一块完整的企业解决方案就行了。

  现在,我把所有这些问题都归结到单个用户的创立。那么,我们现在就建立Eric;并展示这个“数字人”。这可以回溯到他得到办公桌之时。Schmidt博士,请问你姓什么?我将以此为样板来创建所有的东西。除此之外,还将允许你通过环球网访问电子邮件,并为它设置一个口令,这样至少在Internet上会有一定的安全性。

  Schmidt先生:随着这一切的发生,在整个企业网上都存在的“数字人”就建立了吗?

  Merrami先生:是的,建立了。事实上,我现在已经让他在做事,如访问他的工作站、访问电子邮件 ── 或限制他对Internet的访问,这都取决于我怎样控制他──访问Netscape企业环球网服务器,甚至访问文件及打印服务,无论在NT还是在Netware上都行。

  Prows先生:好吧,让我们到新的CEO(由Gary扮演)那边去看看。Gary,他是怎样影响你的?

  Hein先生:我自己是一个活生生的CEO,而不是计算机中的“数字人” ── 或许有那么一点。我一点都不喜欢操作系统和协议;我只想通过桌面上的应用程序来完成我的工作。并且,在工作的第一天就可以到达Novell,且不管主机联到哪种平台上,只需登陆一次便可获取完成工作所需的全部资源。

  Prows先生:J.D.,依你看,应该让Eric怎么做?

  Merrami先生:NT工作站是一个安全桌面,这意味着用户在访问工作站前,必须先有一个口令。为此,我提供一个登陆NT工作站的单方签字,在NDS上创建一个用户,实际上也就是赋予用户使用桌面的权利,在这种情况下,管理员会在特定机器上手工为Eric(不包括我)建立工作站账号。对于Eric的好处是他不必知道另一个口令就可进入该系统。

  尽管在Eric开始工作前,他仍需桌面上的应用软件。但该目录可以识别Eric的身份,这样我们就可利用该信息安装和配置他在工作中需要的软件。

  Prows先生:喔,看起来一切搞定。现在你知道了自己的“位图”以及在新公司的“位图”,而我则知道了你就是CEO。但是即便这样,我仍怀疑你有可能更改了这个“位图”。

  Hein先生:是啊,我了解NT;更改它对我来讲轻而易举。我只需在属性下面单击就可做到这一点 ── 其实这也算不了什么。

  Prows先生:那么我猜我们知道是谁在控制这一切材料。

  Hein先生:那又怎样,我不明白。

  Merrami先生:因为你对于目录是已知的,我们可以在你的桌面上配置应用软件,而所有来自你的“数字人”的信息都将保存在该目录中。

  Prows先生:就好象与你通信的人(Eric)已经被下载了一样。为什么还不开始呢?让我们看一看你现在可以做些什么吧。

  Hein先生:在此之前,我们可以用GroupWise做许多事情,但我需要其它一些应用软件放在我的桌面上。我们刚刚购买了一些提高生产力方面的应用软件许可证,那么就让我的管理员──J.D.──将多一些应用软件放到我的桌面上吧。

  Marymee先生:我们将从这儿给Gary添加几个应用软件;其实并非只给Gary,任何偶然进入该目录的人都可以访问这些应用软件。那么就把Access、Powerpoint、Word之类的软件放进去吧。只需单击几下,就可以把这些应用软件的使用权移交到Eric的操作平台。

  Hein先生:在我工作之前,我需要先定义一下我的计算机和应用软件,以便它能识别我的身份以及我的“数字人”。因此,我想做的是,通过Netscape Communicator将我的个人信息及身份配置到首选项中。怎么,看起来它已经在那儿了!我的电子邮件地址在那儿,名字也在那儿。这是怎么回事?这些应用软件根本不需要NDS呀!

  Marymee先生:请记住,当我们将这些信息取下时,已经读过了你的“数字人”,并可以在将它放到桌面时定义它,以满足你的确切需求。

  Hein先生:让我们出去浏览一下环球网吧。这有一个来自于Utah的小问题,我们的工程师在环球网上花费了大量的时间,差不多被挫败了。我也询问过那边的管理员以确保不再发生此事。所以,我想出去看一下,他是否真的在那儿干活,再看一下Playboy,你知道,那只是本杂志。嘿,等一会,看起来出于一些原因我进不去,尽管过去是可以进去的──我是说,用户过去能进去。

  Prows先生:J.D.,为何不将发生这种情况的原因向新CEO解释一下呢。

  Marymee先生:好吧,BorderManager使Internet可以访问,实际上只是那种简单的管理。我刚刚建立一些规则以控制对环球网上内容的访问,例如Eric刚单击的非赢利性站点。再说一遍,目录将管理那些规则生效的地方。

  Gary,不必坐在那儿浏览环球网了,让我给你一个从新的在线实时销售数据库中获得的URL。当然,既然现在你是一个电子邮件系统的用户,我可以发信给你。我们只需写上“New URL;sales.novell.com”即可。

  Hein先生:我已在路上花了很多时间,并且我喜欢在任何地点都能访问电子邮件。信不信由你,我常常把电话断开,连到Internet上。所以,现在我真的要登陆了,且一离开网络浏览器就访问我的电子邮件。

  Marymee先生:我发给Gary的URL指的是,由Novonyx生产的、运行Novell Netware的Netscape接口服务器上的应用软件。这个应用软件实际上是运行服务器端的Java脚本,而该脚本本身与Oracle销售数据库相连。

  Hein先生:那么让我们继续向前走,到URL那儿转一下。这儿看起来有点象我们的新Oracle数据库的前端。我想再向前走并检查一下几个不同区域的销售额。看来北美比他们的配额落后一点。我很想检查我们在北美地区的销售情况,这离他们的配额多近啊。

  Hein先生:在此发生的基本情况是,我使用了一个标准的环球网浏览器,与运行服务器端Java脚本的Netscape热点服务器交谈,并且谈到发布在intraNetWare服务器上的Oracle数据库,以及我可以在世界上的任何地点通过环球网浏览器感受、浏览销售图表。

  真是太奇妙了!在我工作的第一天,所需的一切就都有了。

  Prows先生:J.D.,我还注意到我们聚在这儿的另一个想法是访问一个操作系统,对了,是NT。并且,我正想知道,你是否已经访问那儿了。你是怎么做的?

  Marymee先生:让我们一起进去并把他们添加到另一个域。我现在可以使用NDS for NT来管理自己域的信息。在NDS中,我准备进去查一下Eric的账号;事实上,我们早已给了他访问该域的权限并把他添加到另一个域;这只需选一个感兴趣的域即可。既然这样,我们不妨进西雅图域转一下。目前,使用NDS for NT可以很方便地管理用户对NT域的访问,就这么简单。

  [挑战,桌面管理,等等]

  Prows先生:简言之,我们每天所面对的挑战既有来自用户方面的,又有来自管理员方面的。他们都需要访问应用软件。他们也都需要能够管理桌面。我们有Groupware 及电子邮件。我们需要访问Internet。同时也需要有控制访问Internet的能力。我们需要访问数据库以完成工作,并需要文件和打印。

  我们已经演示了当一个用户创立时,这个“数字人”也随之创立的一系列情况。并且以放入目录的信息为基础。随后,目录将管理它们之间的关系,并为你提供访问所需信息的能力。

  证明它!

  Schmidt博士:在上面的演示中传达了一个重要讯息,就是除了Novonyx子公司的Netscape环球网服务器之外,所提及的产品都已上市。而Netscape环球网服务器将于下周“感恩节”上市,并可从站点:WWW.novonyx.com下载。大多数人也许还未曾想到这一点。

  另外重要的一点是我们的能力问题。目前我们的窘境正如一个愁眉苦脸的面孔。这极其复杂。例如,在Fortune 500公司的一个职员将平均涉及大约120个目录。

  当前令人遗憾的状况

  但现在我们Novell公司已经找到了解决方案!我们在中层分布了网络服务──Moab和NetWare人员正在做的事,用于管理这些服务的平台──即目录、ManageWise产品等,这对开发商来说是一种新的和重新恢复的吸引力。

  这一简化的目录符合计算机科学中一个最基本的原理,即任何问题都可通过间接手段解决。我们主要在做的是取代你每天所处理的复杂工作,并将它放在网络上。它是智能的、可复制的、并是高速缓存的,而且在这个领域,我们明显占据领先地位。

  简化的目录

  Aberdeen Group写到,“NDS for NT,也就是在NT上运行的产品,甚至背离了Microsoft's Active Directory的需求。”这是对的,因为它并不存在。

  人们可利用这种模式来管理用户帐户、桌面和网络,以及合作和应用程序。

  管理和费用控制

  在演示中,你所看到的是我们所说的应用程序重定向原则。在场的老客户也许知道,Novell是因DOS文件重定向(公司内部的独特技巧)得名的。通过生成一套库和服务(基于与其它人件兼容的通信协议),我们可以在没有用户或系统管理员干预的情况下,提供你所需要的应用程序。第二阶段在使用网络的方式上发生了巨大的变化。但通过发送常用访问管理安全框架,你可以不必重新改写应用程序,就能获得各种利益,如数据共享、减少硬件配置等,这一切都更安全了。该解决方案所有权的总费用──我们已经从市场人员那里获知 ──简直叫人难以置信。很明显,这一切是多么的强大。

  顺便提一句,我们还将开发基于NT NetWare和UNIX的软件。

  Java的使命


  Java语言也是我们战略的一部分。Java语言如今已经获得了巨大的成功。IDC公司说,目前有45万Java编程人员,预计到1998年人数将达到79万。现在使用Java的环球网网址有40万个。有1000个应用软件将上市。在3月的Java会议上,大约有1万名与会者。这是世界上一个非常重要的现象。

  迄今为止,83%的应用程序开发是基于客户端的。并且有很多趣闻。但人们往往忽视了这种现象的背后。中层──请记住,如今的网络中的许多竞争中都有中层──基于服务器端的JAVA就是据此提出的。把Java安装在服务器上将为这种语言提供真正的机遇。我们再一次称之为中层智能。它非常强大。从其本质上看,它不可能被任何单个垄断组织所主宰。它可以有许多不同的选择。而客户也有许多复杂问题有待解决。

  因此,服务器型Java支持其最强劲的套件功能,即平台独立性、速度更快的性能、应用程序的可移植性。它具备正确的结构,可建立适用于新型网络的应用程序。这是我们的战略核心。

  如今,非常重要的是工业上的API(应用程序接口)是不可分离的。如果你读过Contract的第2.6和2.8部分,你就可以对117个许可证有自己的看法。

  Java不仅仅是一只在你网上跳舞的“笨熊”。它是真正的电子商业语言。那么我们处在何处?Java语言将取代C和C++,而一亿个JVM将成为大学、新语言开发的巨大财富。主要的计算机公司、软件公司──象Novell这样的公司以及大学等,都将使用Java建立全新的复杂平台。而这些专业平台最终将成为工业的主流平台。由于配套的应用软件以及系统强壮性等因素,这需要一段时间。

  服务器上的Java将是独立于平台的,而客户端将依赖于类似于诉讼者所做的一切。

  该技术问题与SUN和Microsoft之间的斗争无关。

  Java发展成为主流服务器部件和在服务器上可任意伸缩的JVM是未来的关键。

  Java的使命

  总体上看,我们已经获得了解决最终问题的结构框架。如果你留意一下前文提及的结构框架,它们倾向于特定的客户或应用程序类型。这些都很重要,但它们缺乏易管理性和分布式的Java解决方案。通过我们所提出的开放式解决方案结构框架,我们能比其它人提供更好、更有价值的售后服务。

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