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火成岩:什么是岩浆

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Igneous Rock: What is Magma?

Magma is molten rock that flows within the earth. It may be completely liquid or, more commonly, a fluid mixture of liquid, solid crystals, and dissolved gases. When magma reaches the Earth's surface, we call it lava, or molten rock that flows ground.

岩浆是在地球内部流动的熔化的岩石。岩浆可以是完全液态的,或者是更常见的液体、固态晶体和溶解气体组成的流动混合物。当岩浆到达地表,我们称之为熔岩,或者叫在地表流动的熔岩。

Magma forms when underground temperature become high enough to break the bonds in some minerals, causing the minerals to melt. The rock then changes from a crystalline solid to a fluid mix containing freely moving ions and atoms as well as some still-solid crystalline fragments. Different minerals melt out of the rock at different temperatures as the heat gradually increases, with the minerals having the highest melting points remaining the longest as still-solid fragments in the magma. At the same time, the composition of the magma changes as each newly molten mineral enters and enriches it.

当地下温度增高到足以破坏某些矿物之间的结合力时,导致矿物熔化就形成了岩浆。然后岩石从结晶固体变为液态混合物,但它包含自由运动的离子和原子以及一些仍然保持固态的晶质碎屑。

When heat dissipates from magma, its bonds no longer break and new bonds start to form. Firstly, some of the free atoms and ions in the liquid bond to form tiny crystals. Additional ions and atoms bond at prescribed sites in the crystal structures. The crystals grow until they touch the edges of adjacent crystals. As cooling progresses, different minerals crystallize from the magma, again changing the magma's composition. If cooling continues long enough, the entire body of magma will become solidified as igneous rock.

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