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21世纪:国家过时了吗 States Obsolete?

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21st Century: Are States Obsolete?

The territorial state has been the primary actor in world politics for more than four centuries. The resurgence of nationalism throughout the world attests to the continuing quest by national independence movements for self-governance and satehood, as the principal drive of nationalistic ethnic-political movements is to secure their own national existence within the (legally) impenetrable shell of state sovereignty. This motive explains why the United Nations had 166 member "states" in 1991 and 185 in 1997, and "because of ethnic divisions could one day end up with 400 or more," even if many of these "states" are likely to be fragile.

领土主权国家在长达四百多年的时间里一直是世界政治中最重要的行为主体。在全球,民族主义的复兴就证明了人们对自治和建立国家的民族独立运动继续寻求,因为民族政治运动最主要的动力就是为了追求在(法律上)神圣不可侵犯的国家主权的庇护下,确保民族的生存。这种动机能解释为何联合国的成员国家由1991年的166个增加到1997年的185个,甚至还可能“因为民族分离,国家数量最终会增加到400个或更多”,尽管许多这样的“国家”可能是很脆弱的。

In some respects, theterritorial state is flourishing because it is still needed to give people identity, raise taxes, provide safety nets for the needy, protect the environment, and provide military security. But in other aspects it is dying because "it can no longer fulfill some of the most important traditional fuctions". In fact, many have proclaimed "the end" of state sovereignty and its supreme authority in the face of growing challenges from home and abroad. To them, "A wide variety of forces has made it increasingly more difficult for any state to wield power over its people and address issues it once considered its sole prerogative. Among these forces are the communications revolution, the rise of transnational corporations, increasing migration, economic intergration, and the global nature of economic and environmental problems" (Stanley Foundation 1993).

从某些方面来说,领土主权国家的兴盛,是因为它能为人们提供认同感,征收税赋,为贫困者提供社会保障体系,保护环境以及提供军事安全。但从其它方面来讲,国家又正在死亡,因为“它不再能履行许多非常重要的传统功能”。实际上,在国内外日益增长的挑战的情况下,许多人已宣布了国家主权和国家最高权威的“终结”。他们认为,“来自各方面的力量已使得任何一个国家都越来越难以对其人民行使权力,也越来越难以处理那些传统上完全属于他管辖的问题。这些力量包括:信息革命,跨国公司的崛起,日益频繁的人口流动,经济一体化,以及经济和环境的全球性问题等。”(斯坦利基金会,1993年)

"While states may not be about to exit from the political stage, and while they may even continue to occupy center stage, they do seem likely to become vulnerable and impotent"(Rosenau 1995). Can the state cope with the challenges it now faces" Auguste Comte, a nineteenth-century French political philosopher, argured that societies create institutions to address problems and meet human needs. When they are no longer able to perform these functions, they disappear. Today, as the managerial capabilities of states fail to inspire confidence, their future seems increasingly in doubt.

“虽然国家可能还不会退出政治舞台,它们甚至还可能继续占据着政治舞台的中心,但它们看来确实已变得脆弱并且无能为力”了。(罗斯诺,1995年)国家能够对付它现在面临的挑战吗?19世纪法国的政治哲学家奥古斯特-孔德认为,社会创建有关的机构是为了解决问题和满足人们的需要。当他们不再能承担这些功能时,他们就会消亡。今天,在人们对国家的管理能力失去信心的情况下,它的未来也就越来越令人怀疑了。

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