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罗素西方哲学史:哲学是社会性格的果因

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MANY histories of philosophy exist, and it has not been my purpose merely to add one to their number. My purpose is to exhibit philosophy as an integral part of social and political life: not as the isolated speculations of remarkable individuals, but as both an effect and a cause of the character of the various communities in which different systems flourished. This purpose demands more account of general history than is usually given by historians of philosophy. I have found this particularly necessary as regards periods with which the general reader cannot be assumed to be familiar. The great age of the scholastic philosophy was an outcome of the reforms of the eleventh century, and these, in turn, were a reaction against previous corruption. Without some knowledge of the centuries between the fall of Rome and the rise of the medieval Papacy, the intellectual atmosphere of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries can hardly be understood. In dealing with this period, as with others, I have aimed at giving only so much general history as I thought necessary for the sympathetic comprehension of philosophers in relation to the times that formed them and the times that they helped to form.

目前已经有不少部哲学史了,我的目的并不是要仅仅在它们之中再加上一部。我的目的是要揭示,哲学乃是社会生活与政治生活的一个组成部分:它并不是卓越的个人所做出的孤立的思考,而是曾经有各种体系盛行过的各种社会性格的产物与成因。这一目的就要求我们对于一般历史的叙述,比通常哲学史家所做的为多。我还发觉这一点对于一般读者未必是很熟悉的那几段时期,尤其必要。经院哲学的大时代乃是十一世纪改革的产物,而这些改革又是对于前一个时期的颓废腐化的反作用。如果对于罗马灭亡与中古教权兴起之间的那几个世纪没有一些知识的话,就会难于理解十二、三世纪知识界的气氛。在处理这段时期时,正如处理其他时期一样,我的目的仅仅在于提供——就造成哲学家们的时代而言,以及哲学家们对于其形成也与有力焉的那些时代而言,——我认为是若想对哲学家有同情的理解时,有必要加以叙述的一般历史。

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