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国际关系 门罗主义 The Monroe Doctrine

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James Monroe: THE MONROE DOCTRINE
詹姆斯.门罗: 门罗主义

Monroe Doctrine (1823)
Note: The Monroe Doctrine was expressed during President Monroe's seventh annual message to Congress, December 2, 1823:
门罗主义是国际关系上第一个旗帜鲜明的美国的主义,概要地宣布了新世界对旧世界的分离。门罗主义形成的近因,是俄国要求攫取北美大陆西北沿岸地区,以及拉丁美洲国家争取独立的斗争。门罗总统抓住了这两个问题所提供的机会,宣布不能再把西半球视为欧洲征服或殖民的目标。大约二十二年之后,鲍克总统重申这些原则并且加以详尽阐释。经年累月,门罗主义不再是单方面强调的原则,它逐步为其它国家所接受。下文摘自门罗总统一八二三年十二月二日致国会的第七次年度咨文。

...the occasion has been judged proper for asserting, as a principle in which the rights and interests of the United States are involved, that the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers. . .
...作为涉及美国权利与利益的一项原则,中、南、北美洲,由于它们业已实现并保持自由和独立的地位,今后不得再被欧洲任何国家视作未来殖民的目标。现在已是维护这一原则的恰当时刻了.

Of events in that quarter of the globe, with which we have so much intercourse and from which we derive our origin, we have always been anxious and interested spectators.
地球上那一部分地区(欧洲)与我们交往频繁,而且是我们的原籍所在地,我们对那里发生的事件,一直以不安与关怀的心情注视着。

The citizens of the United States cherish sentiments the most friendly in favor of the liberty and happiness of their fellow-men on that side of the Atlantic. In the wars of the European powers in matters relating to themselves we have never taken any part, nor does it comport with our policy to do so. It is only when our rights are invaded or seriously menaced that we resent injuries or make preparation for our defense. With the movements in this hemisphere we are of necessity more immediately connected, and by causes which must be obvious to all enlightened and impartial observers. The political system of the allied powers is essentially different in this respect from that of America. This difference proceeds from that which exists in their respective Governments; and to the defense of our own, which has been achieved by the loss of so much blood and treasure, and matured by the wisdom of their most enlightened citizens, and under which we have enjoyed unexampled felicity, this whole nation is devoted.
美国的公民对于大西洋彼岸的人民,怀着最友好的心情,希望他们自由和安乐。欧洲各国为它们本身的事而从事的历次战争,我们从来没有参加;如果参加,便与我们的国策不符。唯有当我们的权利受到侵犯或受到严重威胁时,我们才对受到的损害忿懑不平,或准备自卫。但对于本半球的事,我们必然与之有较直接的关系,其原因肯定为一切明白公正人士所共见。各盟国的政治制度在这一方面与美洲的政治制度根本不同。这种区别的根源存在于各个政府之内。我们全国一致拥护和保卫我们自己的政治制度,这个制度是在流了大量鲜血,耗了大量的财富后才建立起来的,而它的成长,有赖于那些最有见识的公民的智慧,而且在这种政治制度之下,我们享受了史无前例的幸福。

We owe it, therefore, to candor and to the amicable relations existing between the United States and those powers to declare that we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety. With the existing colonies or dependencies of any European power we have not interfered and shall not interfere. But with the Governments who have declared their independence and maintain it, and whose independence we have, on great consideration and on just principles, acknowledged, we could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them, or controlling in any other manner their destiny, by any European power in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States.
我们是开诚布公的,并且鉴于我们同那些国家间存在着友好关系,因此我们宣告;如果它们企图把它们的制度扩展到这个半球的任何区域来,我们便把它看作是危及我们的和平与安全。对任何欧洲国家现有的殖民地或属地,我们不曾干涉过,而且也不会干涉。但是,有些政府已经宣布独立并且维护其独立,而我们基于伟大的动机和公正的原则,已予以承认;如果欧洲任何国家,为了进行压迫而干涉它们,或用其它方法控制它们的命运,那么,我们就认为这是对美国不友好的表现。

In the war between those new Governments and Spain we declared our neutrality at the time of their recognition, and to this we have adhered, and shall continue to adhere, provided no change shall occur which, in the judgement of the competent authorities of this Government, shall make a corresponding change on the part of the United States indispensable to their security.
当这些新政府和西班牙进行战争期间,我们在承认它们时就宣告中立;对于这项原则,我们一直坚守,将来如果情势不变,也会坚守,但如情势改变,届时经由我国政府当局的判断,为了它们安全的需要,美国方面亦将作相应的改变。

The late events in Spain and Portugal shew that Europe is still unsettled. Of this important fact no stronger proof can be adduced than that the allied powers should have thought it proper, on any principle satisfactory to themselves, to have interposed by force in the internal concerns of Spain. To what extent such interposition may be carried, on the same principle, is a question in which all independent powers whose governments differ from theirs are interested, even those most remote, and surely none of them more so than the United States.
西班牙和葡萄牙近来的事件,说明欧洲尚未安定。这一重要事宜,最有力地证明盟国曾想根据它们所称心的原则,用武力干涉西班牙的内政。根据该类原则,这种干涉可以进行到何种程度呢?这一问题,凡是政府性质与之不同的一切独立国家,即使隔离很远,都甚为关切,尤以美国为最。

Our policy in regard to Europe, which was adopted at an early stage of the wars which have so long agitated that quarter of the globe, nevertheless remains the same, which is, not to interfere in the internal concerns of any of its powers; to consider the government de facto as the legitimate government for us; to cultivate friendly relations with it, and to preserve those relations by a frank, firm, and manly policy, meeting in all instances the just claims of every power, submitting to injuries from none. But in regard to those continents circumstances are eminently and conspicuously
当地球上那个区域长年为战争所困扰的初期,我们对于欧洲的政策即已制定,至今仍然不变,那就是:不干涉欧洲任何一国的内政;承认事实上的政府为合法政府;同该政府培植友好关系,并用坦诚、坚定和果断的政策来保持那种关系;对于任何国家的正当要求,都予以满足,对于任何危害,则绝不屈服。但是关于中、南、北美洲,情况是明显地截然不同的。

It is impossible that the allied powers should extend their political system to any portion of either continent without endangering our peace and happiness; nor can anyone believe that our southern brethren, if left to themselves, would adopt it of their own accord. It is equally impossible, therefore, that we should behold such interposition in any form with indifference. If we look to the comparative strength and resources of Spain and those new Governments, and their distance from each other, it must be obvious that she can never subdue them. It is still the true policy of the United States to leave the parties to themselves, in hope that other powers will pursue the same course....
各盟国如果要把它们的政治制度扩展到中、南、北美洲的任何一部分区域,而不危及我们的和平幸福,那是不可能的;而且任何人也不会相信,我们南方的弟兄们,如果听其自行处理,它们会自动采用欧洲的那种政治制度。因此,我们对于这种干涉,不论其采取何种方式,都不能视若无睹。如果我们比较西班牙和那些新政府的力量与资源以及相互间的距离,西班牙显然是不能降服它们的。美国的既定政策是对它们不加干涉,希望其它国家亦采取同样的政策…。

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