What causes hemorrhoids?
Experts are divided on exactly what causes hemorrhoids, but probably several mechanisms are at work. Traditionally, hemorrhoids are associated with chronic constipation, straining during bowel movements, and prolonged sitting on the toilet ?all of which interfere with blood flow to and from the area, causing it to pool and enlarge the vessels. This also explains why hemorrhoids are common during pregnancy, when the enlarging uterus presses on the veins.
More recent studies show that patients with hemorrhoids tend to have a higher resting anal canal tone -- that is, the smooth muscle of the anal canal tends to be tighter than average (even when not straining). Constipation adds to these troubles, because straining during a bowel movement increases pressure in the anal canal and pushes the hemorrhoids against the sphincter muscle. Finally, the connective tissues that support and hold hemorrhoids in place can weaken with age, causing hemorrhoids to bulge and prolapse.
Most hemorrhoid symptoms improve dramatically with simple, at-home measures.
1.Get more fiber 多吃纤维食物
Add more fiber to your diet from food, a fiber supplement (such as Metamucil, Citrucel, or Fiber Con), or both. Along with adequate fluid, fiber softens stools and makes them easier to pass, reducing pressure on hemorrhoids. High-fiber foods include broccoli, beans, wheat and oat bran, whole-grain foods, and fresh fruit. Fiber supplements help decrease hemorrhoidal bleeding, inflammation, and enlargement. They may also reduce irritation from small bits of stool that are trapped around the blood vessels. Some women find that boosting fiber causes bloating or gas. Start slowly, and gradually increase your intake to 25-30 grams of fiber per day. Also, increase your fluid intake.
2. Exercise 锻炼
Moderate aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking 20-30 minutes a day, can help stimulate bowel function.
3. Take time 掌握方便时间
When you feel the urge to defecate, go to the bathroom immediately; don't wait until a more convenient time. Stool can back up, leading to increased pressure and straining. Also, schedule a set time each day, such as after a meal, to sit on the toilet for a few minutes. This can help you establish a regular bowel habit.
3. Sitz Bath 坐浴
A sitz bath is a warm water bath for the buttocks and hips (the name comes from the German "sitzen," meaning "to sit"). It can relieve itching, irritation, and spasms of the sphincter muscle. Pharmacies sell small plastic tubs that fit over a toilet seat, or you can sit in a regular bathtub with a few inches of warm water. Most experts recommend a 20-minute sitz bath after each bowel movement and two or three times a day in addition. Take care to gently pat the anal area dry afterward; do not rub or wipe hard. You can also use a hair dryer to dry the area.
4. Seek topical relief 局部缓解
Over-the-counter hemorrhoid creams containing a local anesthetic can temporarily soothe pain. Creams and suppositories containing hydrocortisone are also effective, but don't use them for more than a week at a time, because they can cause the skin to atrophy. A small ice pack placed against the anal area for a few minutes can also help reduce pain and swelling. Finally, sitting on a cushion rather than a hard surface helps reduce the swelling of existing hemorrhoids and prevents the formation of new ones.
hemorrhoids n.痔疮, 痔疾 chronic adj.慢性的
constipation n.便秘 sphincter n.括约肌
uterus n.[解]子宫 prolapse vi.下垂, 脱垂
bulge v.凸出, 膨胀 fiber n.纤维
topical【医学】 局部的 Over-the-counter 不需处方可以出售的
anesthetic n.麻醉剂, 麻药 adj.麻醉的 suppository n.[药]栓剂
hydrocortisone n.氢化可的松 atrophy n.[医]萎缩, 萎缩症